1 July, 15:30, Conference hall
Ronald Breiger, University of Arizona
Toward a Greater Diversity of Networks
There was a time when network analysis was concerned exclusively with who-to-whom (“onemode”) data. Much of the history of network research however has been written as the result of an expanded vision as to what constitutes a network (consider for example: affiliation networks; multimode, multilevel, and multiple network formulations; and Miller McPherson’s ecology of organization types based on overlaps among demographic niches within a multivariate space). In this talk I will propose an extension of network thinking to a large domain where it has not yet received sufficient attention and development, namely, to multivariate modeling, including both regression analysis and its generalizations, and also to the alternative framework for Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) pioneered by Charles Ragin and others. Conventional multivariate analysis arises from a cases-by-variables format and is concerned with modeling the network among the variables. I will review recent work of my research team in which the variables are used to learn about the cases. A network among the cases is used to provide a dual to regression modeling. Standard techniques of network science as well as techniques specially tailored to multivariate analysis are used to bring multivariate modeling within the realm of relational study as an important new example of the diversity of networks. I will emphasize applications of ideas to specific examples including analyses of relations between European societies.
Qualitative Analysis of Multimodal Networks
1 July, 17:00, Room 136
Frédéric Godart, INSEAD; Ashley Mears, Boston University
Fast-Paced Networks: How Various Forms of Social Capital Impact the Careers of Fashion Models
In today’s creative economy, social capital is understood to play a crucial role in enabling the creativity and careers of individuals in an ever-changing environment. But what kind of networks - formal, informal, or other forms - are the best-suited for this type of context? To answer this question we look at the networks that sustain fashion models’ careers. Using a unique comprehensive dataset of fashion models’ profiles and careers between 2000 and 2010, as well as indepth ethnographic material, we distinguish between networks that can be formal (being affiliated to agencies), informal (belonging to national groups), or transitory (being in fashion shows). Each of these three types of networks has an important, yet distinct, impact on the ability of fashion models to reach the top of the fashion industry - curvilinear (inverted U) for formal relations, positive linear for informal, sigmoid for transitory networks made of disposable ties.
Monique Pozzo, VU University Amsterdam
Social Networks, Code-switching and Cultural Navigation of Young Refugees (aged 12-23) in the Netherlands
Last year Europe was unprepared for the arrival of rapidly increasing numbers of asylum seekers. More than 54,000 mainly young asylum seekers arrived in the Netherlands and will soon move into society. My research examines young refugees’ ‘cultural navigation’, understood here as the ways young refugees move and position themselves between diverse socio-cultural groupings constituting their social networks. It examines these processes through the lens of ‘linguistic and cultural code-switching’, defined by Molinsky (2007, 623) as “the act of switching from one language to another” and “the task of moving between culturally ingrained systems of behavior” in order to make a desired social impression. The aim is to identify the personal and societal variables favouring or hampering 'cultural navigation' and ‘code-switching’ of young refugees. It provides answers as to why it is that one navigates easily between these diverse groupings, while the other languishes and disconnects. It also examines if these latter processes give rise to radicalisation. This research applies a mixed-method approach to social network analysis (SNA) and code-switching analysis (here abbreviated as CSA).
Ilya Starikov and Dina Lobodanova, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)
Ego-network in Qualitative Research (Case: Students in North Caucasus)
The authors studied adaptation strategies of students in the three capitals of the North Caucasus republics (Nalchik, Cherkessk, Makhachkala). The research methods were semi-structured interview and ego-network questionnaire. The first was used to identify students' integration strategies, aspects of their behavior and demographic data. Ego-network questionnaire was used to identify respondents’ contacts and their characteristics. The data obtained by these methods were considered complementary to each other. Analysis of the ego-networks led to the conclusion that in the cities of the North Caucasus ego-networks of students are primarily focused on family ties. Moreover there are tendencies of building social boundaries based on criteria such as gender, ethnicity and origin. In addition qualitative data collected during the research allowed to identify factors related to the level of ego-networks homogeneity and the existence of integration barriers. These factors were: participation in student activities, travel experiences, religious practices and work experience. However, girls’ religious practices correlated with more homogeneous ego-networks, on the contrary for the guys religion is correlated with more heterogeneous networks.
Polina Leshukova, Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Networks in the Global World: The Case of Elite Clubs
In the contemporary society, in addition to the formal organizations there are also active informal organizations. This rule applies to both ordinary people and the elites. One example of these informal organizations are the elites clubs, which on the one hand are similar to the usual “interest or hobby clubs”, and on the other hand have their own specifics, which, in particular is related to the social status of their members. Such clubs are part of the informal networks, they help to provide informal interaction between elites. One can suggest that in the informal atmosphere the business issues are raised, in one way or another, and thus it is possible to come to mutually beneficial agreements, or at least to lobby one's business interests. Some researchers note that people belonging to one group and regarding it as an elite, are more inclined to cooperation than the participants of ordinary groups. Bilderberg club and the forum in Davos are among the most well-known and large-scale international elite clubs. Paper presents review of informal networks the case of elite clubs in contemporary society.
Aleksandra Nenko, ITMO University; Nikita Basov and Anastasia Senicheva, St. Petersburg State University
Mixed Roles of Artists and Managers: Artistic Organization In-between Different Fields and Practices
In this paper we question, how the roles of artists and managers intertwine in artistic organizations. There is a tradition to distinguish between these roles as defined by logics of different fields (Bourdieu, 1993): the logic of art field induces artists to seek novel modes of representation to achieve symbolic recognition (Bourdieu, 1993; Crane, 1989; Giuffre, 1999), while the logic of cultural management field forces managers to act along utilitarian and goal-oriented norms to ensure market success for artists and art organizations (Bendixen, 2000; DeVereaux, 2009). However, in contemporary self-run artistic organizations neither of these roles appears to be a product of one logic only. Joint creative as well as everyday practices in an artistic organization can mould roles of artists and managers and create hybrid roles.
In order to trace the dual impact of fields and practices on the roles of artists and managers we employ mixed methods approach combining socio-semantic network analysis and ethnography in a study of two self-run formally organized art collectives based in Madrid and Barcelona. On the one hand, the analysis gives evidence of role behaviour and reproduction of role distinctions in meanings relevant for artists and managers in accordance with the logics of the fields. Activities of managers and meaning structures shared by them correspond to pragmatic and efficiency-oriented norms and values imposed by the field of cultural management, while activities of artists and meaning structures inherent to them are focused on artistic tools and conceptual basis for art projects. On the other hand, in both collectives we observe activities and find meaning structures different from what could be expected in line with the logics of fields. For example, managers propose specific educational art projects in Barcelona case and involve into artworks making in Madrid case. Artists, in turn, dwell upon organizational sustainability of projects in both cases. Blended meanings and mixed activities give evidence that joint practice in artistic organizations endows the roles of managers and artists with new functions and interpretations.
However, the cases differ in the types of joint practices: in Barcelona case the members share everyday practices, yet do not involve in joint artistic practice, while in Madrid case not only everyday practices are shared, but also artworks are jointly produced. With regard to that we observe two distinct subgroups of artists and managers in social structure of Barcelona organization, while in Madrid case the structure is more cohesive.
Networks in Science, Technology, and Innovation. Part 1
1 July, 17:00, Room 138
Julia Brennecke, Swinburne University of Technology
Multilevel Networks and Performance of R&D Projects
This study investigates the influence of knowledge workers’ formal project memberships and their informal interactions on project team performance. Conceptualizing knowledge workers’ affiliation with project teams as a membership network and their interactions as an advice network, I discuss how multiple simultaneous memberships as well as informal advice ties within and across projects affect project team performance. To do so, I draw the theories of social influence and learning. Empirically, I apply newly developed auto-logistic actor attribute models for multilevel networks (ALAAMs) to survey data of 306 knowledge workers associated with 108 development projects in a German high-tech firm. Results show that sharing multiple knowledge workers with another project team critically influences project performance. Moreover, performance benefits from project members informally seeking advice from colleagues working on other project teams. This study contributes to research in the areas of innovation and management by showing how networks spanning multiple levels of analysis influence innovation outcomes. In addition, it demonstrates the usefulness of the ALAAM approach, which allows overcoming many of the methodological shortcomings characterizing existing research on the influence of networks on performance and thereby enables scholars and practitioners to extend their understanding of the network-performance relationship.
Vera Minina and Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University
Personal Communication Ties and Organizational Collaborations in Networks of Science, Education and Business
The paper focuses on analysis of links across sectoral boundaries of science, education and business to clarify how personal communication networks and organizational collaborations networks are related to each other, and which could be the most important aspects of personal relations. By shedding light on these issues, the authors seek for a deeper understanding of how inter-personal communication serves integration between the sectors. The study applies multiplex network analysis techniques using the case of an innovation-oriented science-driven maritime cluster located in Algarve region of Portugal. The cluster is composed of 25 entities (university departments, research centers and companies) contributing to maritime economy. Based on a survey conducted by the authors combined with the existing interview data, the characteristics of the cluster’s organizational level collaborations, as well as the structures of personal communication networks within the cluster are investigated. We compare the networks visually inspecting them and checking network statistics. Further on, we use QAP correlation procedures to test if there is a link between dyadic organizational collaborations and dyadic personal communication ties in general, - and with particular aspects of those ties. Finally, the findings and possible future avenues are discussed and some practical implications, as well as limitations are outlined.
Helen K. Liu, University of Hong Kong; Stephen Griffith, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Crowdsourcing for Social Innovation and Public Policy
Crowdsourcing platforms that facilitate ideas for innovative social solutions and public policies have become promising. Despite its promises, little is known about individuals’ effort and behaviors in generating ideas in online communities under the public policy consultation setting. Previous study has shown that crowdsourcing through internet can generate innovation because of the interactive and diverse nature of the internet. Building on the existing theories and empirical findings, we proposed that the likelihood of proposing valuable ideas to the online community is positively correlated with the boundary spanning activities and feedback received. Using the Peer to Patent and Open Government Dialogue as empirical cases, contributors who conducted boundary spanning activities tended to post ideas that government found valuable to be included in the patent review report and policy agenda. However, the number of feedback and attention received by the other members of the community do not show significant effect to the likelihood of proposing valuable ideas. Such findings provide an implication for the public administrators to understand how to design public consultation platform for the contributors to generate usable and valuable ideas and avoid exploitation from the people.
Larisa Luchikhina, Novosibirsk State Technical University
Characteristics of the Networking Interaction Between the Universities of Germany
In the article an approbation of the system of evaluation criteria of networking activities of universities has been developed under the framework of the grant aimed at studying the universities’ activities in partnership networking communities. The evaluation of the networking interaction of 11 "elite" universities included into the “Excellence initiative” is carried out on the basis of the analysis of official web-sites of higher education institutions and other open sources. The first group of criteria clarifies the composition of actors in partnership networking communities on the basis of the “pentaspiral” concept. The second group of criteria is meant for the determination of the characteristics of the interaction in the framework of partnership networking communities. The third group of criteria reveals the prospects of transformation of the role and further development of the networking interaction between the universities (active presence of educational services on the international market, “export” of educational programmes and provision of assistance in organizing institutions of higher education based on the German model abroad). The obtained data can be used for optimizing following universitiy’s strategies for joining international networking communities.
Words and Networks. Part 1
1 July, 17:00, Room 141
Adina Nerghes, VU University Amsterdam
Refugee, Migrant, or Asylum Seeker Crisis? An Analysis of Debates in the European Union
In recent years, the precarious and unstable situation in the Middle East has pushed many to flee their countries and seek refuge in neighbouring countries and in Europe. In April 2015, when five boats sank in the Mediterranean Sea, killing more than 1,200 people, the phrases “European migrant crisis” and “European refugee crisis” became widely used by media and politicians alike. Such phrases, serve as frames that alter perceptions and perhaps even influence behaviours. While “refugee” portrays people fleeing armed conflict or persecution, “migrant” describes people who make a conscious choice to leave their country to seek a better life elsewhere. These dichotomized characterizations can have serious consequences for the lives and safety of asylum seekers, they can undermine public support, steer public opinion, and frame the debate on how the world should react to this crisis.
Using network analysis methods, this study investigates multiple networks of European organizations and European officials, with a specific focus on the discourses of those officials and organizations representing countries most affected by the on going influx of asylum seekers. Within a constantly evolving political environment, the vibrant political and public debates and discourses surrounding this crisis provide indications of the ways in which asylum seekers are received and perceived.
Iina Hellsten, VU University Amsterdam
Integrating and Differentiating Meanings in Tweeting about the 5th IPCC Report
The publication of the 5th IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Working Group 1 report in September 2013 was highly debated in Twitter. In this paper we focused on Tweets that mention “IPCC”, and in particular the content and sentiment of the tweets sent by tweeters that were identified as unconvinced or as convinced towards the scientific basis of global warming. Our results indicate that the content and sentiment of those convinced reflect mainly information sharing activities instead of expressing opinions or participation in the debate. Climate change science is, however, challenged by some unconvinced tweeters who tend to use more negative words in their tweets. Our theoretical contribution is on the processes of meaning making around the IPCC report in relation to different groups of tweeters. We identify how certain words may be given different meanings by different groups, and how certain words have a differentiating function between the groups and integrating function within the groups. Our results increase our knowledge about the content of climate change debate in social media and on Twitter in particularly and contribute to research interested in how words function as differentiating and integrating meanings between and within social groups.
Li Lan, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Language Inflation: The case of Tsunami Used in Different Social Contexts
Language inflation is a readily observable process (Dahl et al. 2001); it is also called exaggeration or over-the-top language. There is limited research to illustrate what language inflation is and how it differs from hyperbole. This paper takes a corpus approach to investigate diachronic and synchronic metaphor changes in the last 80 years with a particular focus on the word tsunami, reflecting the development of linguistic strategies applied to metaphor formation in everyday discourse. A number of online historical mega-corpora, such as TIME Corpus, COHA and enTenTen2012 were explored to trace how the word tsunami, borrowed from Japanese, has been gradually used as a metaphor, linking our bodily experience to important social events in business, politics, information technology and even in our everyday life. The findings reveal that about 76% of the phrase tsunami of are used metaphorically in today’s English. In many cases the word seems to be more than just a hyperbole but evidence of language inflation. Journalists imbue texts with force and significance to entice people to pay attention: financial storm has become financial tsunami; cash flow is replaced by cash tsunami. Tsunami of traffic, tsunami of email and tsunami of tears also have high frequencies, but the writers probably meant something much less by the use of tsunami. While appreciating the creative use of the language, the author wonders whether the meaning of tsunami has been weakened when mundane events are so exaggerated. Language inflation may demean the communication process and numb public attention-catchers, however it is difficult to keep a balance between language clarity and language creativity.
Petr Ocelik, Masaryk University
Framing a Deep Geological Repository of Nuclear Waste in the Czech Republic: A Mixed-method Discourse Network Analysis
The contribution maps framing of the siting process of a deep geological repository of nuclear waste in the Czech Republic. Theoretically, it is assumed that emergence of local opposition or of acceptance cannot be reduced to the activation of latent individually-held attitudes and beliefs, but is rather a result of complex social construction process. Methodologically, it uses a mixed-method approach to discourse network analysis to explore discursive underpinnings of the local opposition as well as local acceptance. Data consists from 47 semi-structured elite interviews with mayors of municipalities, activists and state officials coded by two independent coders. In conclusion, it is argued that the reconstructed frames stem from a deeper ideological conflict about the nature of democratic governance and the value attributed to environment, further stressing the importance of a siting process’ institutional arrangement that goes beyond technocratic solutions.
Statistical Modelling of Multimodal Networks. Part 1
1 July, 17:00, Room 142
Johan Koskinen, University of Manchester
Bayesian Approaches to Multilevel Modelling of Longitudinal Networks and Modelling Multilevel Networks
We consider modelling of longitudinal networks in a tie-based framework. A tie-based model is convenient when we wish to relax strict notions of agency in tie-formation. We may for example want to allow ties between multiple types of nodes or we may deal with ties that are not by their nature results or relational decisions. An example of the former may be multilevel networks, where ties are not restricted to one nodeset. An example for the latter may be when the ties are based on binarised aggregates, such as movement or capital flows. The family of exponential random graph models (ERGM) offer a well-researched framework for modelling the existence of ties as conditional on local neighbourhoods, something that lends itself straightforwardly to extensions to longitudinal network data. Recent work on estimation has showed that a Bayesian inference approach offers a flexible and robust procedure for estimation of these processes. Here we build on recent advances to explore two hierarchical, or multilevel, extensions. The first attempts at inferring to what extent the dynamic process changes over time by extending a previously proposed hierarchical formulation of the model. The empirical context is to determine whether there are shifts in the dynamics that describe the moves on the housing market. The second extension we consider in the same framework is to allow for multilevel network mechanisms, of the types developed for in the longitudinal model. Both approaches represent distinct examples of how homogeneity is relaxed, one in time and the other terms of local social dependencies.
Slobodan Kacanski, Roskilde University
The Multilevel Network of a Structure of Audit-Client Relationships
Two streams of literature comprising the studies on interlocking directorates and auditor change have neglected to emphasize actual network structure assembled of relationships between boards and auditors. Following the literature of auditor change, which weighted the relevance of behavioral over economical reasons for switch (Magri & Baldacchino, 2004), this study goes forward trying to inspect whether and how the effect of auditors’ reputation/prestige determines direction of switch. This study argues that boards, to enhance their own social position, tend to select auditors with positive reputation anticipating that newly established relationship might enhance their reputation too. Prestige is reflexive social concept generated through already established relationships, and it is always determined by perceiver (Maner & Case, 2016). Therefore, the study discusses auditors’ tendencies to both engage prestigious auditors, and tendencies of making a switch/interlocking with directorships that already have established relationship with prestigious auditors. Archival data comprised of annual reports from 150-190 public interest entities (PIE) in Denmark for period of 2010-2014 are used to analyse multimodal network and propose the social network model by applying ERGM.
Natxo Sorolla. Rovira i Virgili University. CUSC - University of Barcelona
Social Networks Advances in Language Choice Research: ERGM Analysis About Language Shift in Catalan-speaker Area of Aragon (Spain)
Multilingual societies have a genuine interest in sociolinguistic research for their language practices, and social network analysis (SNA) is an appropriate methodology to deal with usual questions in sociolinguistics discipline, such as who speaks with whom, what languages s/he uses, and why (Gal, 1979; Milroy, 1980; Li Wei, 1994). But SNA incorporates a methodological challenge into this area, because sociolinguistic relations have attributes (valued networks): individuals may have (1) or may not have (0) relations, and these relations may take place in language A (1) or B (2) (Gallagher, 2012). In our empirical research different types of sociolinguistic roles were defined (Doreian & Mrvar, 2009), and ethnolinguistic borders between Catalan and Spanish speakers are defined in relation with language choice and social networks (Barth, 1969; Wimmer, 2013). Language choices are related with mother tongue of sender and receiver, their linguistic competences, and their attitudes. We analyse network configurations, inspired in ERGM analysis (Lusher, Koskinen, & Robins, 2012). In both cases, groups language maintenance is not stable and blockmodeling and ERGM shows great powerful as an innovative technique in sociolinguistics study of language choices.
Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University; Aleksandra Nenko, ITMO University
Co-evolution of Social and Cultural Structures: A Multilevel ERGM Analysis of Artistic Organizations
This paper explores coevolution of cultural and social structures using multi-source datasets collected in several self-run creative organizations in different cities of Europe. We apply multilevel exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to two-level structures including meaning networks based on shared co-locations of words, social networks represented by continuous collaborations and emotional attachments between individuals, and bipartite networks as individuals use shared words. Estimating the models with configurations where collaborators and emotionally close individuals share words simultaneously with configurations accounting for collaborators and emotionally close actors contributing to same meaning structures we find case-specific dependencies between cultural and social structuring. In some cases shared meaning constructing appears to be linked to emotional relations, while collaborations correspond to diverse meaning constructs. In other cases, on the opposite, joint meaning structures turn out to co-occur with collaborations, while emotional ties are of no importance for shared meaning constructing. Extensive ethnographic data are used to explain the variations in findings across the cases.
Vladimir Matveenko, Alexei Korolev, and Anastasia Alfimova.
On Dynamic Stability of Equilibrium in Network Game with Production and Externalities
We consider a network game with production and externalities, which describes a situation typical for many economic, social, and political systems. In the first period of time each of the agents/actors in a network receives endowment and distributes it between consumption and investment. In the second period the agent’s consumption depends on her own investment as well as on investments of her neighbors in the network. The agent’s payoff is a function of her consumptions in the two periods. We use a concept of the Nash equilibrium with externalities, which makes economic agents more “tied” to the game situation than under the usual Nash equilibrium. We introduce adjustment dynamics into the model and study stability of the game equilibrium. We consider the adjustment dynamics of one agent, which starts after a change in the externality, and the dynamics of the system on the whole in response to an initial disturbance of the equilibrium. We find instability of the inner equilibrium and convergence to a new corner equilibrium and, correspondingly, stability of the latter. We find a special role, both in the static and in the dynamic framework, of conditions, which are referred as the presence and the absence of productivity.
Networks in Art: Practice and Structure, Meanings and Interactions. Part 1
2 July, 10:00, Room, 143
Željka Tonković, University of Zadar
From Organizations to Networks: Analysis of Artists' Networks Across Time and Space
This paper is concerned with the organization and communication models embedded into networks and collaborative practices in the field of modern and contemporary visual arts. The interdisciplinary research methodology jointly considers social network data and text data in order to detect and visualize both social and meaning structures in artistic practices. We approach artists' networks and associations as social spaces which share common aesthetic, political and social meanings. For this reason, more formal techniques of structural analysis are combined with qualitative analysis of meaning structures. Relational data for this presentation were collected from an original database (CAN_IS) which comprises multiple original data sets consisting of different social relations among artists and biographic information. The paper will present analysis concerning longitudinal aspects of network formation and dissolution as well as composition and structural properties. Further, qualitative analysis will provide contextual factors necessary for understanding of network dynamics. In the final part of the paper, methodological and epistemological aspects of this multilevel research are discussed.
Marco Serino, Giancarlo Ragozini, and Daniela D'Ambrosio, University of Naples “Federico II”
The Field of Theatrical Production. Duality, Multidimensionality and Dynamics of Affiliation Networks of Stage Co-productions
In this paper, we present the methodological framework and related empirical results of a study on an affiliation network of theatre companies involved in stage co-productions in Italy’s Campania region, over four theatre seasons. Two or more theatres result as affiliated when jointly collaborating to one or more stage co-productions. The corresponding two-mode network thus consists of a set of companies and a set of co-productions. Dealing with this data structure implies taking into account the duality of affiliation networks and their multidimensionality, including categorical attributes of companies and co-productions and the longitudinal dynamics of the field. Social network analysis encounters the relational perspective of Bourdieu’s field theory in order to investigate the power relations at work in a theatrical field and the distinctions among groups of companies, and their positions, according to the characteristics of their productions (position-takings). We adopt Blockmodeling, Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Multiple Factor Analysis for affiliation networks in order to partition and classify both companies and co-productions. By doing so, we attempt to highlight both the relational and the “objective” structures of the field, and their mutual implication.
Stanislav Moiseev and Benjamin E. Lind, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Competitive Cultural Market: Music Label Productivity
Despite the wealth of literature on the effects of particular collaborative structures on organizational outcomes, most research focuses upon formal organizations with the expressed purpose of maximizing profit or innovation. This literature typically highlights how bridging diverse groups fosters innovation while closure within groups improves an organization’s reputation and trust. It remains to be seen, however, the ways in which varying collaborative forms affect an organization’s output within creative fields often characterized by informal boundaries. For this paper, we analyze how collaboration networks within metal musicians, affect record label output regarding the quantity of albums released. Here, we highlight the two-mode process of collaboration, whereby individuals affiliate with one another through a shared project. Our study considers how collaborative characteristics - including bridging, closure, as well as individual-level star power - affect a label’s record production over time. We test these considerations using collaboration networks generated from online archives in addition to secondary data in multilevel models. Findings from this study contribute to scholarship on interorganizational networks, organizational ecology, and cultural markets.
Gerhard Panzer, TU Dresden
Diversifying Artistic Practices in Transforming Art Exhibitions
Art exhibitions became after their conduction by academies a multiplex governed structure. Art institutions e.g. the art academy and the museum played a further role, but their influence decline. It varies during the interaction with cooperating actors from the civil society, artists, artist groups, art society on exhibition events. I use for the analysis the collected data from historical exhibition catalogue, archived data of artist group, data from artist lexicon and local archive. It was a local art world with an art academy, artist groups, an art society and some large-scale exhibitions in particular during the 20s to the 1930s. I will analyse the relationships between actors and institutions or exhibition events to discover exhibition structures by affiliation network analysis of actors to examine their relationships to the field and its transformations. My questions are who governs exhibition policy in the art world? How are the exhibitions organised? Which artists participate in organisation? How long does it take to get a chance of exhibition participation? Are there relations to other local or the national art world? Then I will discuss some consequences for artistic practice, for the transformation of exhibition organisation including the rise of new meanings.
Alexandra Nenko, ITMO University; Margarita Kuleva, National Research University Higher School of Economics; and Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University
Invasion Into Art Field: Meaning Structures of Artistic Collectives in Different Urban Contexts
Nowadays, the notion of autonomized art field (Bourdieu 1993) is hardly realistic. Policies of cultural and creative industries have turned art into a tool for economic and urban change (Florida 2005; Caves 2000) used as an answer to many social challenges, “a brand name without a brand, ready to be shaped onto almost anything” (Steirl 2012:30). On the one hand, these changes enriched the field of art with larger flows of financial capital coming from city governments and private funds. On the other hand, they brought to life new artistic values, e.g. entrepreneuralism, marketability for non-profit sector, social engagement, as well as external agents who evaluate pieces of art according to these criteria. The paper examines this invasion into art field from a micro sociological perspective studying two cases of creative collectives located in London and Barcelona. In these collectives artists socialized in the autonomized art field work together with those artists and managers who are active agents in economic and education fields and bring into the discourse of the collectives correspondent agendas, such as neoliberal economy, ‘creative city’, exclusive consumption, and inclusive democratic education. We investigate how in contexts of national cultural policies these different fields blend and compete during joint creative practice in the collectives shaping shared artistic and social visions of the members. To do this we apply meaning structures contrasting approach (Basov et. al, 2016) to semantic network data and ethnographic data collected on the two cases.
Words and Networks. Part 2
2 July, 10:00, Room 141
Wouter van Atteveldt, VU University Amsterdam
A Semantic Network Analysis of Political News Using Syntactic Clauses
This paper shows how syntactic information can be used to automatically extract clauses from text, consisting of a subject, predicate, and optional source. This technique is used to analyse Dutch political newspaper coverage in the context of the referendum campaign on the Ukraine. The output of this analysis is used to construct two networks: a (two-mode) network of which politicians discuss which issues (using which words), and a labeled actor (social) network of which politicians support or criticise which other politicians (using which words). This shows how automatic social and semantic network analysis can be used to analyse framing and conflict patterns in political newspaper coverage.
José Tomás Atria, Columbia University
Text as a Social Artifact: Towards a Theoretical Foundation for the Sociological Exploitation of Vector Semantic Models
Recent developments at the intersection between natural language processing and network analysis have produced a small renaissance in the use of text data in the social sciences and humanities. However, most work in this field has been fundamentally limited to the analysis and modelling of eminently discursive phenomena. This paper argues that vector semantic models (of which semantic networks are one possible specification) have a more general application for the modelling of social processes beyond discourse, if we pay particular attention to the social processes that generate text. Introducing the notion of artifact as a material product of social interactions that encodes the semantic context of a social fact, we link a theory of social facts with the structural-linguistic foundations of VSMs in order to show how these can be leveraged for the study of long duration historical processes through the analysis of changes in the social practices that actualize them. We pay particular attention to methodological and technical issues, and illustrate the proposed approach via its application for the study of different aspects of the modernization process through the analysis of a corpus of transcriptions of criminal trials in London from 1674 to 1913.
Daria Iudina, St. Petersburg State University
Semantic Network as an Instrument for Extension and Validation of Topic Model Interpretation
Topic modelling, specifically models based on Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), proved its practicality in the analysis of unstructured sets of texts, which usually sociologists receive from the social media. However, the interpretation of modelling results complicates the work of researchers as a model does not exclude ambiguity and can omit low-frequent topics. The purpose of the presented research was to validate the topic schema mined from the comments to the documentary “Chaika” made by Anti-Corruption Foundation and placed on Youtube. For this purpose, it was implemented semantic network analysis complementary to topic modelling. The network was built on the top collocations consisting of two words and selected by likelihood ratios. The results of cluster analysis of the giant component afforded to validate the several key themes, which had been revealed before, and to discover a few new topics and aspects of the “Chaika” discussion. As a complementary method, such way to create and analyze a semantic network allows sociologists relatively fast to examine their interpretation of texts. Meanwhile, a collocation network can be used as a separate instrument, for instance, to visualize the structure of discussion.
Ioanna Ferra, University of Leicester
Anti-austerity Movement in Greece: Cyberconflict, Networks and Discourse
The anti-austerity movement in Greece not only strongly expressed the necessity for political and social change but indicated the potentiality of digital media into the development of social movements, suggesting areas/themes of conflict (e.g. political, social) and a potential association between online conflict (cyberconflict) and the offline world. Based on the theoretical framework of cyberconflict, the study of the anti-austerity movement developed through the understanding of online networks, as regards to the case of the Greek Indignados (Aganaktismenoi) and the Syriza Online Diaspora. Then, the study focused on the Greek referendum (#Grexit, #oxi campaign), examining the contribution of digital media to the development of collective action and discourse. The study developed through the analysis of online data (Facebook, Twitter) which collected during the period January 2015 to January 2016 (NodeXL). The analysis of Facebook data developed an insight into the online networks, pointing out online coalitions, communities and dominant actors (SNA), while the Twitter data supported the investigation of the hashtags evolution and discourse (Semantic analysis and discourse).
Statistical Modelling of Multimodal networks. Part 2
2 July, 10:00, Room 142
Peng Wang, Swinburne University of Technology
The Duality of Social Selection and Social Influence
Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) test how other network ties and nodal attributes may affect tie formation and the overall network structure. The flexibility of the model constructs makes ERGMs extendable to various network data structures, namely one and two-mode networks, multivariate networks, and multilevel networks. Extensions of ERGMs also include Autologistic Actor Attribute Models (ALAAMs), or social influence models. ALAAMs model individual outcomes as dependent variables, while treating network structures as exogenous and not liable to changes. ERGMs and ALAAMs separate social selection and social influence processes, both of which occur simultaneously in social systems.Assuming the interdependent nature of network activities and individual outcomes, utilizing the flexibility of ERGMs in modeling network structures of different types, we treat individual outcomes as another mode of networks, and combine and extend the features ERGMs and ALAAMs into a modelling framework where both network structure and individual outcomes are modelled together. The proposed models eliminate presumptions of whether social selection or influence processes dominates a given social context by combining social selection and social influence processes into a unified model. The proposed model offers a modelling framework for cross-section network data. A generalizable data structure representing both networks and nodal attributes is presented. The proposed model specifications are demonstrated with simulation studies, including higher-order configurations beyond dyadic effects that may alleviate model degeneracy. The empirical modelling examples illustrate the power and flexibility of the modelling framework and its empirical and theoretical implications.
Ksenia Tsyganova and Dmitriy Tsyganov, St. Petersburg State University
Comparison of Friendship Network vs Communication Network Using ERGM
Studying Social Network may involve different approaches. Researchers may use descriptive or inferential methods or both.To answer and understand processes about generalization of a network inferential approach is more practical. Studying networks with Exponential Random Graph Model (ERGM) method is gaining more popularity. We set a goal to compare similar attributes from friendship networks and from communication networks. We chose different types of groups from social networking site VKontakte (VK). Friendship network in our case is undirected network with simple mutual link between nodes (friends). We think that to fully understand the network formation and evolution, analyzing communication in the network is essential. For that, we use ERGM modeling to analyze communication network. In general case, communication network is directed, but for modeling purpose we converted communication network to undirected graph as well. This enables us to address following questions - how does friendship in online social network reflects the way people communicate in different types of online social networks? What attributes correspond for the formation of networks? Do the same attributes respond in similar matter for the friends network formation and communication network formation?
Valeria Ivaniushina, Vera Titkova, and Daniel Alexandrov, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Multiplex Networks Analysis: Friendship and Academic Help
Research in network science demonstrates that not only the attributes of the nodes influence the formation of network ties (process known as social selection), but also the network structure can be self-organizing into various patterns. Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) makes possible to analytically separate pure structural explanations of tie formation and explanations based on actors' attributes (Lusher, Koskinen, Robins, 2012). Multiplex networks are defined as set of nodes linked by more than one relation (Wasserman and Faust, 1994); different relations may affect one another. In this paper we analyze interdependencies between students’ friendships and academic help relations within 30 classrooms. We analyzed academic help and friendship networks in classrooms by means of multilevel dyadic p2 models, and demonstrated that school performance, academic self-evaluation, and gender are factors affecting help-seeking and help-providing behavior in classroom. However, serious limitation of p2 models is that they do not account for dependencies beyond the dyad, such as transitivity effects and higher-order patterns. We built multivariate ERGMs using XPNet software that allows to jointly analyze two networks, and combine the results of multiple ERGMs by means of meta-analysis.
Arseny Gabdullin, Sociological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Alexey Knorre, European University at St. Petersburg
Making Web-based Research Service for Network and Life Course Analysis
We are going to present a free Web-based research service for inputting, storing and analysis of biographical data called BORIS (Biography Oriented Research Information System). It is a handy and useful tool for computer-assisted input of biographical trajectories of any kind, which also transforms entered data into formats for network and life course analysis and visualize it right on the spot. After short demonstration of work, we will show several research projects completed with this tool: (1) career trajectories of Soviet sociologists, (2) geographical and professional mobility of judicial elite in Russia, and (3) flows of FC “Zenit” players to/from other football clubs.
Networks in Science, Technology, and Innovation. Part 2
2 July, 10:00, Room 138
Anuška Ferligoj, University of Ljubljana; Vladimir Batagelj, Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics (Slovenia); University of Primorska; Andrej Marušič Institute
Network analysis of “peer review” literature
From bibliographic data on “peer review” obtained from Web of Science we construct the citation network and some additional two-mode networks (works x authors, works x keywords, works x journals). We first present some statistical results (interesting distributions, extreme units, etc.). In the citation network we determine the main stream(s), the most important publications, and main topics through time. For more detailed insight into the field we determine also the most interesting islands (subtopics). From the works x times authors network we compute the collaboration network and, combining it with citation network, also a network of citations between authors. In the collaboration network(s) we identify the most collaborative authors, main collaboration groups and their topics, main journals. In the authors’ citations network we identify the research thematic groups, their topics, leading authors, etc. The analyses were performed using Pajek - a program for analysis and visualization of large networks (De Nooy et al., 2011). Most of the used methods are described in the (Batagelj et al. 2014).
Ekaterina Filatova, Novosibirsk State Technical University
Engagement in Networks and Work-life Balance of Academics
Modern university is expected to become engine of innovations, an intellectual leader amid transformations of political and social structure of society. It must not only train students and conduct research but also meet rising demands of business and government. Macro-social processes have inevitably imposed new requirements on academics making it hard to achieve work-life balance - “satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict” (S.C.Clark, 2000). If work and family systems are interconnected and interdependent, we argue that a modern person makes daily transitions from numerous personal and professional networks trying to cope with demands of each. Most researchers agree that academics have to search for the ways of ‘fair’ time distribution among teaching, doing research and administrative duties. The present research aims to analyze how engagement in networks of different kinds influences work-life balance of a university teacher, and find out if participation in networking activities helps to attain better work-life balance. The research shows that the ability to establish and maintain connections and to balance between networks can produce remarkable results in achieving proper work-life balance.
Irina Antoschyuk, European University at St. Petersburg
Diasporic Ties in the Academia: Collaboration Network of Russian Computer Scientists in the UK
Ethnic ties are reported to serve as an important channel of knowledge exchange, innovation and technology transfer (Saxenian 1999, 2006; Kerr 2007; Agrawal 2008; Breschi, Lissoni 2013). Diasporic connections are also found to be of consequence for the scientific community: migrant academics tend to engage in collaboration with their compatriots across the world, what plays a major role in establishing and extending global knowledge networks (Scellato et al 2015; Larner 2015). But, asserting the significance of diasporic ties, these studies do not examine their characteristics nor the structure of relations they form. Focusing on the population of Russian computer scientists (RCS) in the UK as specific case of diasporic academics and referring to works on collaboration networks in computer science (Newman 2001, Franceschet 2011), I intend to fill this gap. Constructing and visualizing RCS co-authorship network (based on DBLP data) and implementing SNA measures, I analyze the structure of relations RCS maintain with each other abroad and in the home country. I seek to answer the questions: how large and well connected is the network, how intensive and dense is collaboration and how network properties might impact information exchange and knowledge generation activities.
Prabir G. Dastidar, Ministry of Earth Sciences (New Delhi, India); Olle Persson, Umea University; D.R. Pattnaik, India Meteorological Department
Modeling the Dynamics of Science & Technology Research: Network Analysis of Monsoon Research
Monsoon, season of rains, a special phenomenon in the region of Indian subcontinent, occurs due to shifting of prevailing wind direction. Ecology of the region and its rich biodiversity is deeply influenced by monsoon. The GDP of the region is highly dependent on monsoon. Therefore, monsoon research assumes great significance in this region of south Asian countries. Number of research papers published by countries indicates quantum of research work going on in the countries. Network of citing and cited papers, degree of collaboration, volume of research undertaken by the organizations form the character of a subject. This study aims to reconstruct the intellectual developments in the field and identify important scientific events in the development of the research field. Important players involved in the research was identified, and dynamics of the research field mapped using a newly developed indicator—Weighted Direct Citations (WDC). WDC value indicates intellectual closeness between two citations using co-citations and shared references. 40 most cited papers were identified to construct the historiography of scientific developments in the monsoon research. The axis of critical path of scientific developments was constructed using frequency of in-degrees (citing dimension) and out-degrees (cited dimension) of most cited papers.
Making Sense of Big Network Data: Testing Hypotheses on New Data. Part 1
2 July, 10:00, Room 136
Iina Hellsten, VU University Amsterdam; Loet Leydesdorff, University of Amsterdam
The Transdisciplinarity of Translational Research: Multimode Networks Approach
The discussion on trans inter and multidisciplinarity has been booming the last years. Klein (2008) makes a distinction between US based transdisciplinarity and European, problem centered transdisciplinarity. While multidisciplinarity refers to several disciplines working side by side with each other, interdisciplinarity requires more integration in the collaborations across various disciplines. In this paper, we focus on ‘translational research’ in medicine, and propose a 3mode network approach to investigate how transdisciplinary the field is. In particular, we focus on academic publications in thirteen journals with ‘translational research’ in their titles. In particular, our approach consists of three overlapping analyses: First, we map the co-citation network of the institutional affiliations in the publications. Second, we compare the journal names in “translational research” and the semantics in the title words of the publications. Third, we compare the institutional affiliations of the authors and the semantic networks using Web of Science data for a set of thirteen journals in the field for the years 2012-2014.
In medicine, transforming scientific research results from basic and clinical research into new medicine and applications in clinical practice has led to the emergence of the new research field of translational research (e.g. Keramaris et al., 2008; Woolf, 2008). Translational research aims at facilitating the application of the medical research through medicine testing in humans (e.g. Marincola, 2003) and has been conceptualized as a continuum of applied medicine from basic research (scientific publications) to clinical trials (resulting in patents and publications) to adoption of new medicine and tools in practice.
To this end, we propose a three-mode network approach to measuring transdisciplinarity via the fragmentation versus coherence of translational research. We combine three types of matrices semantics (co-word maps); the knowledge base (co-citations) and topics (Medical Subject Headings), and assimilate the results into a three-mode networks of the knowledge base, the topical embeddedness and the semantics. This approach enables the comparison of these three different types of networks in comprehensive visualizations. Our paper contributes to socio-semantic network analysis by providing partly overlapping 2-mode networks, and a combined 3-mode approach in scientometrics.
Emil Saucan, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology; Melanie Weber, Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences (Leipzig); Juergen Jost, Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences (Leipzig), Santa Fe Institute
Forman-Ricci and Laplacian Flows for Change Detection in Large Dynamics Data Sets
We present a couple of interconnected solutions to the challenging question of change detection in complex networks inferred from large dynamic data sets. To this end, we introduce a novel geometric method for the characterization of different types of model and real-world networks, based on R. Forman’s discretization of the classical notion of Ricci curvature. Furthermore, we adapt the classical Ricci flow, that already proved to be a powerful tool in Image Processing and Graphics, to the case of weighted, undirected networks. In addition, we also consider the related discrete Bochner-type Laplacian, and naturally exploit it to develop a fitting Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed methods were applied on a variety of model, as well as real-life networks, and their relative advantages explored and compared. Moreover, our proposed geometric approach yielded insights into the structure of their underlying data.
Scott Feld, Purdue University; Alec McGail, Independent Researcher, Indianapolis
Theoretical Considerations Regarding International Diffusion
Theoretical Considerations Regarding International Diffusion on Twitter Diffusion over networks involves movement from a node to its neighbors, to their neighbors, etc, but it may spread to only a small proportion of neighbors at each step, and it may reach the same other nodes in many different ways. It is widely recognized that social networks are largely composed of clusters that are connected by a combination of overlapping with one another and by ties between the clusters The process of adoption depends upon the determinants of individual adoption, and the structure of the network. Specifically, we consider the spread of a retweet across the twitter network and consider how spread within a cluster is likely to generally follow the traditional S-curve, but spread across clusters is likely to vary widely depending upon the thresholds of individual adoption. We specifically consider countries as bounds of particular types of clusters within international social networks, and consider how patterns of diffusion within and between countries can be expected to vary according to the size of thresholds that are typically required for a particular form of diffusion. We test some of our expectations with data on diffusion of various retweets over time.
Ines Lindner, Dieter Wang, Iina Hellsten, and Melike Karkili, VU University Amsterdam
Cascades and Avalanches in Twitter Communication Networks
We analyze the structure and content of communication networks on Twitter, with the aim of identifying mechanisms that lead to sudden information cascades and social avalanches (hypes). Ten Thij et al (2013, 2014) use Dynamic Random Graph (DRG) models that simulate the evolution of a retweet graph on actual Twitter data. This simplified approach, however, fails to model the actual decision of the Twitter users. Attema et al (2016) introduce agent based models (ABM) in which the tweeting behavior of individual agents includes personal characteristics such as the number of followers of a tweet and the tweeting behavior of friends. The large number of parameters, however, weakens the reasonable fit of the model. The purpose of our work is threefold: (1) We test the existing DRG and ABM models with longitudinal Twitter data on climate change. (2) We argue that tweets are carrier of sentiments (moods, emotions) that can be derived from tweet contents. The existence of sentiments implies that individual agents influence each others’ preference by mutual “charging”. This mechanism of preference synchronization and amplification might be the main driver of hypes. We introduce sentiment dynamics explicitly into an ABM framework and tests this approach with longitudinal Twitter data.
Socio-Material Network Analysis: Relating Individuals and Physical Contexts
2 July, 12:30, Room 144
Frédéric Godart, INSEAD
Making it Work! The Selective Hybridization of Institutional Logics in Elite Modern and Contemporary Art Museums
Organizations often solve tensions between institutional logics by giving rise to hybrid arrangements. However, much remains to be learned about how these arrangements come to be and more specifically how they shape organizational output. We explore this question by looking at how high-status organizations in creative industries deal with the tension between the professional logic-based on principles that foster homogeneity across organizations - and the market logic - centered on identity-seeking processes that yield heterogeneity and distinction vis-à-vis competitors. We study this phenomenon in the context of the professional requirements and organizational constraints of the three biggest international modern and contemporary art museums (MoMA in New York, Tate Modern in London, and Pompidou in Paris). By analyzing which artists are selected by museums, and how they are organized spatially in exhibition rooms, we reveal the processes underlying the selective hybridization of seemingly incompatible institutional logics in the staging of permanent exhibitions.
Anisya Khokhlova and Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University
The Duality of Persons and Objects in Groups: A Network Analysis of Socio-Material Structures
In the framework of social and cultural duality studies, this paper applies multi-level network analysis to investigate micro-principles guiding the co-evolution of interpersonal structures and material structures (relations between objects) in groups. Based on Bourdieu’s ideas on the relatedness of social and physical spaces, we inquire how those two kinds of structures co-constitute each other via patterns of individuals' material practices in shared spaces. In doing so, we focus on two artistic communities, one in Barcelona and one in Hamburg. Institutionalized as an educational project and a co-operative society respectively, these consist of creative professionals eager to accommodate their working, exhibiting, interaction and exchange (in one case also living) practices beneath a shared roof. Following Bourdieuian logic, we expected the members – friends and collaborators particularly – to have similar material practices and to be embedded in similar material structures filling the common spaces of work and/or living and leisure (from furniture and tableware to the artworks members produce, discuss and promote).
Using such data as ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews, photo elicitations and sociometric surveys, we mapped networks of relations between individuals and objects. Further, multilevel exponential random graph models including within – and between – level configurations were used to test the hypotheses on the micro-principles of socio-material structures formation. While the results reveal such mechanisms of co-evolution of the social and the material, the findings also suggest that the work of these mechanisms is substantially impacted by macro-level effects, suc
Lyubov Chernysheva and Anastasia Golovniova, European University at St. Petersburg; Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University; Aleksandra Nenko, ITMO University
Inferring the Mediative Role of Practice: Joint Activities, Common Spaces, Objects and Meaning Sharing in Art Groups
This study investigates the ability of practice to mediate social fields and subfields (De Nooy, 2003). The authors question the ways “matters at hand" - shared space, usage of objects, collective creative and everyday activities of artistic groups’ members, - correspond (sub)fields mediation. Two-level socio-semantic approach to meanings (Basov et. al, 2016) is combined here with socio-material network analysis (Basov and Khokhlova, 2016) and applied to such data as interviews, ethnographies and sociometric surveys on three artistic communities - two in St. Petersburg and one in Madrid - differing in their practice. The Madrid and one of the St Petersburg groups, which members share spaces and objects while the collective creative activities are scarce, demonstrate very limited (sub)fields mediation. Even joint leisure spending and intense interaction on everyday matters do not facilitate mediation but rather correspond (sub)fields’ boundaries creating distinct social subgroups. By contrast, the second St Petersburg group, which members are deeply involved in joint artistic activities, demonstrates blending of meanings even though they have no common space, regular casual interactions or shared objects. A considerable role in (sub)field(s) mediation by practice may therefore be played by collective creative activities rather than by everyday activities or objects/spaces sharing.
Narciso Pizarro, Complutense University of Madrid
Structural Equivalence and Networks of Places revisited
After seminal Breiger’s article (1974), Pizarro (International Sociology, 2007) proposed the use of networks of places as a tool to analyze simultaneously the social identity of individuals as well as the equivalence classes in social networks. Networks of places used on standard data sets deliver results equivalent to blockmodel analysis, while being able to deal with large data sets. This approach was limited nevertheless to a set of individuals and a set of social circles. We will expose here a possible extension of this perspective to the case of multiple relations networks. It is possible to build networks of places where the membership sets are also plural. It is, of course, possible to deal with large data sets.
Elisa Bellotti, Jon Spencer, Nick Lord, and Katie Benson, University of Manchester
Covert and overt networks in Counterfeit Alcohol Distribution: a Criminological Network Analysis
The paper integrates a criminological and social network analytical theoretical approach to understand the organisation of the distribution of counterfeit alcohols. We aim to analyse the dynamics between the ‘scripts’ through which offenders must go in order to accomplish their counterfeit alcohol enterprise and how these scripts shape and are shaped by the multi-mode, multi-link networks of cooperating actors at various stages of the crime commission process. Our data cover two subsequent and connected investigations by a domestic European regulator on the network of distribution of counterfeit vodka and wine across three European jurisdictions. We first perform script analysis of the two cases to identify the crime scenes, the actors and their resources; the sequence of actions and decisions before, during and after criminal activity at all stages of crime commission; the tasks that need to be performed to commit these activities; and the range of places where they are performed. We subsequently organise these information in a multi-mode, multi-link network where nodes can represent various entities (people, organizations, resources, locations) involved in the scene, and the ties the type of performed actions.
Networks in Art: Practice and Structure, Meanings and Interactions. Part 2
2 July, 12:30, Room 143
Sari Karttunen and Jutta Virolainen, Foundation for Cultural Policy Research (CUPORE)
Network-based Internationalisation: The Case of Finnish Contemporary Art
The paper draws on the survey ‘From cultural influences and exports to dialogue and networking’ (2016) that was commissioned by Frame Visual Art Finland from the Finnish Foundation for Cultural Policy Research. The survey mapped out the key actors and forms of international activity within contemporary art in Finland. It was based on a questionnaire on organisations and individual actors in the art field. The survey revealed that the number of art professionals and organisations that work internationally is large and their operations are manifold. International operation is a given for many artists, curators and organisations, and inseparable from their other activities. The actors are spread all over the country, while their activities mainly focus on Europe. The survey indicates that networks and collaboration are the basis of Finnish contemporary art in the international context. Peer networks based on mutual expertise and interests have replaced state-led programmes. In many countries, artists and institutions fight against diminishing public funding by means of co-operation and exchange within and across borders. The paper looks into the nature of the networks and the way how art is produced through them.
Alexandra Nenko, ITMO University; Nadezhda Vasilieva, National Research University Higher School of Economics
An Individual or a Collective strategy? Career Trajectories in St. Petersburg Contemporary Art Field
Specific features of St. Petersburg art field are the limited contemporary art market and the scarcity of resources for professional development of young contemporary artists. Based on a case study of an artistic collective in St. Petersburg we inquire linkages between - individual or collectivist - career strategies of its members and their performance in the art field given its specificity. We take off from the framework introduced by Bourdieu’s theory of cultural production further applied to analysis of artistic careers, e.g. by Giuffre (1999), and employ Farrell’s (2001) perspective on specifics of creative collaboration. Using mixed methods approach applied to network and ethnographic data we study artists’ strategies and track their career chances. To get a better overview on the possibilities and resources of St. Petersburg art field available to young contemporary artists and to receive evaluations of performance of the collective considered and individual achievements of its members we conduct expert interviews with representatives of St. Petersburg art field who are in relations with the collective - curators, art critics and authoritative artists. Then we (1) consider individualist and collectivist exhibition tactics analyzing two-mode network of collective members and their individual or group exhibitions in St. Petersburg and other Russian cities during the period of four years and (2) study artists’ attitudes towards collective versus individual representation and promotion through qualitative interviews with them.
Ekaterina Moskaleva and Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University; Alexandra Nenko, ITMO University
What Do Collectivism and Individualism ‘Mean’? Different Career Strategies and Shared Meaning Structures in Art Groups
This paper investigates meaning structures emerging in artistic groups that unite members with various identities, experience and knowledge. In those we distinguish between artists representing two different career strategies in the art field: individualists and collectivists. While the former view their membership in the artistic group as a way to use its professional network and material resources to gain symbolic capital themselves and thus to achieve a better position in the field, the collectivists try to improve their position by joining their (often scarce) social and economic capital to improve group’s status and prestige. Pursuing different goals, artists with such different orientations are still interested in maintaining collectives and often turn out to join within one art group.
Analyzing interview data, ethnographies and texts produced by members of two art groups - one in Hamburg and one in St Petersburg - we explore meanings shared by the artists representing the collectivist orientation and the individualists. We apply the two-mode network-analytical approach in order to get insights on how meaning structures of those who follow the two potentially conflicting strategies distinct from each other, and also how these strategies get mediated in meaning structures of one collective - as individuals engage in interaction and joint practice (de Nooy, 2003). We attempt to shed light on why in one case artists manage to mediate different orientations successfully and sustain a stable group, while in the other they fail to.
Emma Coffield, Newcastle University
Membership as ‘Mattering’: Restoring the Emotional Content of Belonging
Bourdieu’s (1993) holding apart of ‘objective relations’ and ‘social relationships’ within the field of art production has been extensively critiqued. Bottero and Crossely (2011: 103), for example, point out that a shared group habitus can ‘only be explained by reference to interacting agents who become alike by means of a process of mutual influence and interaction’. Yet sociological studies of this process of mutual interaction tend to focus upon the ‘how’ of distribution and technique, and the ‘labels’ applied or denied (Inglis 2005) and rarely consider the emotional content of membership, or the impact of this upon artists and their work. This paper, drawing upon micro-level data collected at The Mutual, an artist-run co-operative based in Glasgow, Scotland, demonstrates how membership, as a form of ‘lived participation’ (Wenger 1998) allows members to be heard as meaningful and to ‘matter’ in the world (Guibernau 2013). It explores the multiple, fraught boundaries established, the significantly different interpretations and values ascribed to membership, and the consequences of this for identity-work (Goffman 1969) and the ‘framing’ of ‘legitimate’ artworks (Entmann 1993). It thus argues for the restoration of affect to sociological studies of art production.
Elena Ungeheuer and Mia Kuch, University of Wuerzburg
Composing with Networks Today
Analysing social networks is a main issue in the realm of a pragmatic research, as the Call for Papers indicates. For the observation of given phenomena, pragmatic research stipulates an awareness of their processuality and the multitudinousness of variables lying behind. Methodologically, the paper focuses on the importance of further implications turning any empirical approach into a pragmatic one: 1.) Reducing the presuppositions on the side of the researcher, 2.) Discussing frames of reference, 3.) Preparing the research through the help of an extensive period of pragmatic project management. We illustrate the relevance of these issues particularly for analysing network processes with examples of a recently undertaken musicological fieldwork on contemporary music in New Zealand. The research project is titled “Doing Life in Music Today?” The artist’s view on current topics of social life will not only be analysed in their music but extracted from their practical way of doing art today. Creatively networking is supposed to be a crucial option as well as a skill that we expect to be performed in a high diversity of manners.
Words and Networks. Part 3
2 July, 12:30, Room 141
Olesya Volchenko and Violetta Korsunova, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Mapping Cinema Universe: Exploring Keywords from Internet Movie Database
Current project aimed to cover two significant gaps in research on cultural sphere: lack of research on film industry as social phenomena and neglecting by social scientists opportunities provided by Internet Movie Database (IMDb). IMDb is an online dataset of movies and television programs ever filmed all around the world. It contains keywords, year and country of production, genre, directors, writers, cast and crew etc. Current research is focused on three variables: plot keywords, year and country of movie production. Keywords may be considered as topics occurred in a particular movie. The reason to apply social network analysis is to explore semantic fields inside the topic universe. We assume that keyword cooccurrence can be an evidence of substantial semantic relation between phenomena that keywords describe. In our case two keywords are considered to have an edge if they appear in the same movie. We constructed a network of keyword of European movies. All keywords were divided into five clusters with certain topics which characterize them. Some clusters reflect genre differences (for example we defined a group of keywords related to blockbusters and romantic comedies, though the others are vaguely associated with conventional genre distinction).
Ju-Sung Lee, Erasmus University Rotterdam; Nikita Basov and Artem Antonyuk, St. Petersburg State University
A Sociosemantic Account of Artistic Communities: Structural Position and Involvement in Meaning Making
This paper explores the inter-relations between shared cultural structures represented by shared meaning constructs (Carley, 1994; Mohr, 1998) and social structures in small communities. Shared culture and meaning have been theorized and shown to arise from social interaction and social proximity. Using cross-sectional data comprising both communication ties and verbal and written expressions, we examine how roles and positions of actors in the communication structure (social networks) of four artist groups associate with the construction of shared meaning. We find that highly active individuals are strategically interacting with others in order to jointly construct a shared creative vision and to integrate the community. In this process, they rely not only on their competence or formal authority but also on a focus on emergent meanings and interactions. This makes their role in the community less autonomous in developing and supporting a shared vision. On the contrary, the more intensely they interact, the more they base individual meaning structures on the same, shared set of concepts serving to span their aggregated community discourse.
Aleksei Gorgadze, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Alina Kolycheva, European University at St. Petersburg
Mapping Ideas: Semantic Analysis of “PostNauka” materials
“PostNauka” is a project (similar to the global set of conferences “TED”) about modern fundamental science and the scientists who create it. The website was established in 2012 as a platform, participating in the popularization of scientific knowledge. More than 3000 materials were published on it. Surprisingly, no one has tried to carry out the analysis of these materials until now. We decided to fill this gap by conducting our own research on “PostNauka”. An inspiring example to be followed was the performance by Sean Gourley and Eric Berlow, who showed the map of ideas similarity in the TED-speeches and the way new topics were born on the periphery of global themes. We conducted the same analysis for “PostNauka” to show the existence or the lack of links between topics, to define the extent of interdisciplinarity of the project and to check the rightness of sections proposed by the website. We took all video-materials transcripts published on www.postnauka.ru. Two types of methods were combined for analysis: semantic analysis methods (LSA&LDA) and network analysis (SNA). As a result, we got the mind-maps of “PostNauka” materials. They demonstrate how the materials are tied, which disciplines are excelled and how they are sorting with the official classification of the website.
Artem Antonyuk, St. Petersburg State University
Constructing Freedom of Speech in the Internet Governance Domain: a Socio-semantic Analysis
The notion of freedom of speech is one of the guiding values for Internet governance debate and practice. Yet, its sense is significantly shaped by legal, cultural, and political contexts. The differences are made explicit in international talks on Internet-related issues. In this presentation, I look into how the notion of freedom of speech is used by participants of the Internet governance forum (IGF), an UN-supported annual international meeting of representatives of business, state, and civil society. Employing a combination of social and semantic network analysis techniques, I study the transcripts of talks given at the IGF meetings from 2011 to 2015. The following questions are addressed: which notions of free speech are expressed by IGF participants; how the discoursive space of the IGF contributes to expression of different opinions; how the notion of free speech is contextualized and connected to other topics; how it is used at different levels of the Forum, i.e. thematic subgroups, general sessions and advisors’ meetings; how interactions of actors are related to articulation of common or divergent interpretations of free speech. Answers to the questions are inspired by network theoretical insights into discourse dynamics and social construction of meanings.
Networks in Science, Technology, and Innovation. Part 3
2 July, 12:30, Room 138
Victor Tischenko, Institute for Systems Analysis, Russian Academy of Science
The Model of Scientific Virtual Community on Social Network Site
The paper reviews the results of the study of virtual social networks (networks of virtual communication between forum participants on social site “aspirantura.spb”) from the complex networks theory standpoint. Based on original research by the author, it reveals peculiarities of perception of certain complex networks for the simulation of virtual communication. The study of the scientific community on the social site “aspirantura.spb.ru” received a graphic representation (a graph) of social network participants. It is shown that the use of “Louvain algorithm” identifies the network of virtual community, whose members are characterized by different activities and the degree of closeness centrality. Unfolding of virtual communities in the degree of closeness centrality allows objectively highlight (identificate) of the members of the board of the Internet users, who are united in a virtual community without resorting to textual analysis of the participants of the forum posts. Finally, the application of the principles of the methodology of complex networks allows you to simulate a virtual community structure, highlighting the “influential” community members (the opinion leaders), and thereby lay the foundation for building a behavioral model of the virtual community.
Claude Rosental, CNRS
Towards What Types of Relational Systems Does Electronic Communication Contribute? The Case of Academic Research
In the social sciences various notions of networks are based on simplified representations of relations and their dynamics. For all they are worth, these representations fail to exhaust the question of the elaboration of “networks” and their texture. The relational systems and dynamics connected to electronic communication in research constitute a fine example for more indepth analysis of this issue. “Networks” are treated here as Unidentified Relational Objects. Based on surveys undertaken since the early 1990s, I would like to show how academic uses of electronic communication contribute towards the elaboration of diverse forms of “networking” and other types of relational systems, and sometimes towards their destruction.
Daria Maltseva, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Network Studies in Russia: The System of Relations of the Main Drivers
The development of science discipline in many respects depends on the system of relations between researchers working in it – if they see themselves as “invisible college” or competitors, interact with each other or prefer some “significant others”. Also what is important for establishment of a certain discipline is institutional context - the official approvement of discipline and presence of organizations engaged in certain research. The exclusion of Russia from the context of social sciences typical for the Soviet period has further led to certain lags in some areas. The direction of network studies – recognized as a discipline from the 1950s in Western science - in Russia is quite new research methodology. However, now in Russia we can see network scientists and some institutionalized forms of their cooperation. It is important to understand who - what actors and organizations – are the drivers of network research in Russia; how these drivers are related to each other and at what research teams – Russian of foreign – they are focused. We study it by citation (references) analysis of articles on “network” topics published in Russian journals (resource eLibrary.ru). We can see the most active drivers who form several clusters mostly not corresponded with each other.
Making Sense of Big Network Data: Testing Hypotheses on New Data. Part 2
2 July, 12:30, Room 136
Ilya Musabirov, Daniel Alexandrov, and Viktor Karepin, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Networks of Educational Mobility in Eurasia
Most important educational mobility/migration decisions leave digital footprints in the users’ profiles on Social Networking Sites. The most popular SNS in Eurasia from Belarus to Kyrgyzstan is VK with over 300 million pages, where millions of school and university students are registered. Wherever they move after the school, they keep their VK profiles and just add new cities and universities. Our analysis is based on 60k+ profiles found by using VK API search engine. The data form bipartite network of source countries and host cities, and we applied community detection algorithm clustering fSU countries by their migration patterns. Baltic states form flows oriented towards Northwestern part of Russia. Flows from Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova mostly have targets in the Central region of Russian Federation, while students from the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbajan and Georgia) and Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) aim at Central regions, Siberia and South Russia. Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan stand alone with their migration patterns. Our research shows the importance of geographic proximity, cultural / religious affinity and existing networked migration chains in directing students’ flows from sending countries to destination cities.
John Boy and Justus Uitermark, University of Amsterdam
Urban Capture: Instagram and the Stratification of Places in Amsterdam
How do city dwellers use social media to perceive, represent and navigate the urban landscape? How do they use them to find out what is happening in the city, to associate with others and to express their attachment to places? How does the city feed into digital networks, and how do these networks feed on the city? This paper develops a relational approach to these questions that relies on an innovative combination of qualitative methods and network analysis to analyze a dataset of over 400,000 geotagged Instagram posts from Amsterdam posted over twelve weeks by more than 30,000 users. Our analysis sets out to advance our understanding of the interface between social media and urban space. We argue that Instagram functions as a device that filters and stratifies urban places. By selectively imaging and circulating pictures of exclusive and avant-garde establishments and events, the platform serves to promote high-end consumption, thereby contributing to processes of gentrification. Our findings further suggest that Instagram also provides a space for the segmentation of users into subcultural groups that relate to the city in varied ways. The paper thus reflects on the refraction and restructuring of the city in and through social media.
Francisco Freitas and Chiara Charrozza, University of Coimbra
European Organizational Networks Established Under FP7 – The Case of Climate Change and Adaptation Research Projects
The research on the topic of climate change and adaptation in Europe is a complex system combining thousands of projects held by a vast network of research centres. Open linked data on Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) is available at the CORDIS website. After extracting the appropriate cases, this exploratory project carefully refined and assembled a geographically informed database. The goal was to understand how research on climate change has been funded and managed in Europe during the FP7 period. The assembled geodatabase proves to be useful in different ways: readiness to construct and make sense of a complex ecosystem, extensive research possibilities offered by the software, namely the ability to build complex queries, or the ability to prepare and export refined data into dedicated network analysis software packages. The research data has therefore been mapped and analysed using different techniques, including statistical analysis. The goal was to address particular research questions, specifically which precise subtopics assume increased relevance on climate research or the leading institutions in the field. While progressing on the data analysis, some other questions emerged. This paper will therefore offer an overview of the research work and preliminary results.
Josef Lilljegren, Umea University
Network Adjusted Market Concentration - the Use of Multiplex Firm Level Networks in Business History
This paper investigates the various effects of several types of corporate networks on changing market and firm organization. The case of the development in the information intensive insurance industry is used for the time during and after industrialisation in Sweden - a time when the market actors organise themselves along lines of increasing inter-firm cooperation. These cooperations take the shape of cartels and cooperational organizations, cross-ownership, and interlocking directorates - which each have their particular (and measurable) effects on the concentration of the market and ultimately how market is structures evolved over time. Using firm-level public statistics, cartel-records, and data on board-members from every national property underwriter from 1875 to 1950, multiplex firm-level networks are built for 20 benchmark years. The use of network influence on market concentration, measured by a network-adjusted herfindahl-index, constitute a novel way to distinguish between different network effects on market concentration. This study also adds a network perspective to business history, and shows how network analysis can be used to add to the previous understanding of the change in the structure and organizational of markets.
Networked City: The Multiplicity of Urban Links and Nodes. Part 1
2 July, 17:00, Room 141
Maria Podkorytova, St. Petersburg State University; Irina Slepukhina, Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography
City Networks in the Post-Soviet Space: Focusing on Unevenness
City systems in FSU countries represent highly complex structures shaped by concurrent processes of globalization and nationalization. However, there is an evident shortage of knowledge supporting a comprehension of a process of urban space transformation in FSU countries. The research aims to uncover a structure of a city network shaped by newly emerged global economic links in the post-Soviet space. The disintegration of the USSR has led to the reconstruction of interurban ties within the region. This process may be viewed in two ways. Firstly, as an internal reconfiguration, which transforms a hierarchy of the cities and interrelations between them. Secondly, as an external process of new ties construction which are shaped by globally integrated economies. Disclosure a structure of the city network on either side provides a contribution to contemporary discourses on both world city network formation and FSU space reconfiguration. The research widens the knowledge of overtaking development within the post-Soviet region basing on the analysis of locational strategies of global advanced produce service (APS) firms. Findings of the study demonstrate the ongoing divergent processes of uneven development, which may be observed as a significant characteristic of post-Soviet space.
Alija Ishmukhametova, Saint Petersburg State University Of Architecture And Civil Engineering
Language of a City
My research aims to explore semantic landscape of a city to reveal hidden phenomena of the city’s behavior. I investigated meanings generated by companies’ activities in a central Moscow area and expressed through different language units and structures. Data were collected from the websites of the companies in the form of clusters of words, phrases and language structures according to their weight. The collected data describes fully even the most complex and subtle meanings and allows studying the city more closely. My work implies methodology enabling to analyze semantic correlations and patterns directly in spatio-temporal context. I modeled complex mutual relations between language units based on their ability to define each other as an universal metric material. Considering that complex networks jointly to other parameters and on different levels makes it possible to understand urban processes. I have worked under the following points by the present moment: studying coincidences in the names of companies; modeling relations between synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms and considering them on the basis of their semantic gravity, semantic density and semantic diversity; modeling word-formative chains and nests and analyzing resulting spatio-temporal pattern.
Anastasia Belskova, St. Petersburg State University
The Role of the Complex Policy Networks in the Management of Urban Public Policy (Comparative Analysis of the Moscow and St. Petersburg)
This study focuses on the study of the impact of the existing policy networks in the process of developing and implementing the decisions that are taken in the field of tourism development in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Public policy of the modern city as a complex system is, in fact, a public decision-making process, in which are involved many elements of the system. This policy implies the need for coordination to develop a common strategy. Moreover, public policy is in response to political requests that are sent by one actors – individual citizens, representatives of the groups, legislators, - to others – government officials or authorities. The research will be conducted by using the comparative method, aimed at the identification of existing similarities and differences during formation and functioning of complex networks. The main aim of the research is to identify the network management features and to identify the analysis capabilities and forecasting of network performance issues within the public agenda of urban policy. The feature of this research is the using of a methodology that combines network analysis methodology with a complex adaptive systems and game-theoretical modeling.
Daria Dobrinskaya and Inna Vershinina, Moscow State University
Urban Dynamics in the Context of Theory and Network Models Complexity (A Case Study of Moscow)
There has been a considerable growth of the interest in the networks. This fact has led to the widespread discussion on possibilities and limitations of network thinking. Generally these enduring debates are the result of different understanding of ‘network’. Various approaches to the ‘network’ represent different interpretations of what ‘network’ is. So network can be seen as a special method of sociological analysis (network analysis), or as a metaphor (analytical abstractions) for description of social relations, or as a social form.
Network analysis allows researchers to explain the relations between diverse networks in the urban environment. The paper presents three levels of network phenomena in Moscow: networks of urban communities, the city as network and networks of cities. The complexity and particular features of urban phenomena in Moscow are analyzed. S. Sobyanin became mayor of Moscow only five years ago and we can see that the city has been changing because of new government with new policy. New urban practices and possibilities for residents and guests of Moscow have appeared and the perception of city environment has changed.
Social Movements and Collective Action as Network Phenomena
2 July, 17:00, Room 136
Ioanna Ferra, University of Leicester
Digital media in Greece: Cyberconflict and Networks
While the number of studies focusing on the contribution of digital media and the development of social movements in Greece is quite limited, the way that social media contributed to the crisis era has already suggested areas/themes of conflict, indicating a potential association between online conflict (cyberconflict) and the offline world.
The study of the Greek anti-austerity movement developed through the analysis of online data (Facebook, Twitter) which collected during the period January 2015 to January 2016. The first stage of the study concentrates on the understanding of online networks focusing on the case of the Greek Indignados (Aganaktismenoi) and the Syriza Online Diaspora. Then, at the next stage, the study focuses on the Greek referendum and the national elections of Sept. 2015 (#Grexit, #oxi, etc.).
The analysis of Facebook data developed an insight on the online networks, suggesting online coalitions, relations and dominant actors (SNA), while the Twitter data supported the investigation of the evolution of hashtags and discourse (Semantic analysis). NodeXL and Gephi supported the collection and visualization of the data, while the data analysis developed based on the cyberconflict theory, indicating the contribution of digital media in socio-political conflict and the development of collective actions and social movements.
Sergey Suslov, St. Petersburg State University
Network Analysis of Social Movements as Exemplified in Russian Youth Organization’s Online-communities
Over the past few years a lot of youth organizations have been involved in social media. This paper is an initial step in using social network analysis to study structure of youth organization’s online-communities. We try to explore special aspects of participation in different types of social movements. In this piece of the research we focus on the social structure of online communities related to youth organization. Our aim is to elucidate online communities’ qualitative composition, connectedness, similarities and differences. 137 Russian youth organizations have its online communities in the social network “VKontakte”. About 83% of online communities had auditory up to 5000 members. Communities are analyzed as a hub, and persons whose interconnections (following fact) create an extensive net. Social network analysis is focused on links. It’s builds on and used concepts from mathematics of graph theory. Positions within network may be a significant factor. Position and centrality in net provide the basis for three tactics of participation and center-periphery typology for communities. Structural analysis of every community gives an opportunity to compare communities in its tie-up cooperation, modularity and distance.
Sander van Haperen and Justus Uitermark, University of Amsterdam
Building Protest Movements on Twitter: Geographical Anatomy of the Open Source Movements #not1more and #blacklivesmatter
This article studies how two social movement networks evolve in time and place by means of Twitter. Activists campaigning against the deportation of undocumented migrants in the United States introduced the #not1more hashtag in early 2013. This is compared to involvement in the #blacklivesmatter movement, another example of an “open source movement”. Both campaigns have a distinct topology: there are persistent and well-connected core users and many ephemeral users. The campaign also has a distinct geography: there are interconnected metropolitan hubs with a large periphery in cities where activism flares up episodically. To explain this topology and geography we analyze how network communities are constituted and shaped by the mechanisms leading people to become involved. While the exact topology and geography of #not1more and #blacklivesmatter is distinctive, we expect qualitatively similar patterns in other cases of open source activism.
Natalia Ryabchenko and Anna Gnedash, Kuban State University
Network Analysis of the Civiс Tech Communities
Non-governmental organizations, public organizations, government agencies are interested in the development of civil applications and invite to cooperation of various specialists of IT-sphere, thus creating hybrid forms of interaction and innovation. If we trace the history of the development of civic applications, it may be noted that at the first stage of the development of civil applications request them formed by NGOs or the public sector to the IT-sphere, but eventually civic applications transformed into Civic technology, and in the IT-sphere formed integrally civil process in a community that is not just developing civic applications, but also is the initiator. In general, the activities of civic tech community can be divided into two areas: Open Government (projects aimed and based on transparency in government structures action, the development of open data, access to public services in electronic form as well as the participation of citizens in making social and political decisions) and Community Action (projects designed and based on the exchange of information). By applying network analysis tools, we can visualize and evaluate the effectiveness of the functioning of civic tech communities in the socio-political sphere and civil society.
Social Media Networks. Part 1
2 July, 17:00, Room 143
Social Media and Climate Change Communication Networks: Theoretical and Methodological avenues
The presentation will focus on research into social media in the context of climate change communication,
and in particular the theoretical and methodological challenges provided by social media data for the network analysis. The presentation will build upon, and use examples from several case studies using a mixed method approach to comparing the frequencies and the content of blog postings and newspaper articles on climategate (Hellsten & Vasilieadou, 2015) as well as a series of social and semantic network research on Twitter use in the context of the publication of the 5th IPCC reports (Pearce et al., 2014; Holmberg & Hellsten, 2014, Holmberg & Hellsten, 2016). On the basis of these different case studies, the presentation will aim at evoking discussion and opening up further avenues for both theoretical work on social media, and methodological tensions on combining social and semantic network analysis methods.
Xubing Zhang and Namwoo Kim, Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Israr Qureshi, IE Business School (Madrid)
Consumer Information Search in Social Media
As user generated content (UGC) on social media has become one major information source for consumers, UGC and social media have attracted increasing attention from academics as well as practitioners. In this research we explore whether and how consumers use the product information on social media to assist purchase decisions. Social media vary in community features, expertise and information trustworthiness, etc. How do these characteristics affect consumers’ trust and intention to use the information to assist a purchase decision? How are the answers to the above questions affected by macro-environment such as adoption of social media in the society, technology (e.g., broadband, 3G/4G mobile technology, etc.), and culture (e.g., uncertainty avoidance, and individualism/collectivism) and product category factors (e.g., involvement, hedonic/utilitarian, experience/search goods)? To the extent that prospective consumers’ searching for and using product information on social media are affected by macro-environment and product category, our empirical results will provide useful guidance for marketing managers who are assessing the effectiveness of social media as a communication channel and those who are implementing social media marketing.
Yadviga Sinyavskaya, Olessia Koltsova, and Sergei Koltsov, National Research University Higher School of Economics
When Internet Really Connects Across Space: Communities of Software Developers in Vkontakte Social Networking Site
Following the discussion on the role of Internet in the formation of ties across space, this paper seeks to supplement recent findings on prevalence of location-dependent preferential attachment online. For this purpose, instead of looking at egonetworks, we look at networks of online communities specifically aimed at development of location-independent ties. The paper focuses on the four largest professional communities of software developers in the leading Russian SNS VKontakte, one of the communities being studied in depth. Evidence suggests that membership; friendship, commenting and liking ties are overwhelmingly cross-city and even cross-country.
Sergey Suslov, Vera Minina, Ksenia Tsyganova, St. Petersburg State University; Vladimir Radushevsky, Resource Center “Center for Sociological and Internet Research”
Network Analysis of Online Communities by the Example of Saint Petersburg’s Museums
Social media creates a space for the development of online communities that differ in social setting and activities. Our ambition is to study the online community as a target audience of a museum. We try to explore how online communities influence practices of museum services and a policy of engagement with customers. In this piece of the research we focus on the social structure of online communities of St. Petersburg museums. Our aim is to generate a typology of online communities of the museums. 78 online museum communities in the social network “VKontakte” were examined. Community and a person whose interconnections create an extensive museum’s net are considered as analysis units. Communities are analysed as a hub. Network analysis is focused on links. But position within the network is a significant factor. The representation in bipartite graph with node’s socio-demographic attributes expose targeted audience of community and adjacent audience between communities. Clustering analysis of weighted graph of museum communities where edges are a percentage of adjacency lead to their typology. Structural analysis of every community gives an opportunity to compare communities in its tie-up cooperation, modularity and distance.
2 July, 15:30, Conference hall
Michael Batty, University College London
Defining Cities Using Networks and Flows
Cities are places where people come together to generate activities that enhance their collective labour and sociality. This implies that networks exist to enable these functions. In the past, cities have been understood mainly from physical networks based on people and material flows while social networks, certainly prior to the electrical age, were harder to observe but nevertheless still measurable. As the information age has accelerated, cities have got ever more complex with multiple layers being generated, all interacting with one another and providing possibilities of chaotic as well as unanticipated cascades of good and bad events. On top of these, with the introduction of sensors and computers into control of networks, real time streams of flow and related data is becoming available. In this talk I will outline how we are getting to grips in larger cities with such networks, illustrating them with respect to RFID access to transit systems, networks based on social media, and mobile phone traffic. I will illustrate work from our Oyster Card project in London, from various social media measures, and from the use of street networks to determine clusters and fractures which form localities, regions and nations within which we define the system of cities.
Network Analysis of Cultural and Social Duality. Part 1
3 July, 10:00, Room 138
Jan Fuhse, Humboldt University of Berlin
Social Networks of Meaning and Communication
The talk develops a theoretical perspective on the duality of culture and networks, and discusses some of its methodological implications. I argue for the conceptualization and the study of social networks as patterns of meaning arising, stabilizing, and changing in communication. Ties and networks are bundles of “relational expectations” about the behavior of actors toward each other. These expectations result from the particular sequences of communication among the actors involved, but they also draw on cultural models for relating. These include social categories (such as gender and ethnic boundaries), but also roles and institutions. Such cultural models can vary from context to context. We should thus not view network mechanisms or models as a cultural and as constant across different meanings (of categories and of relationships) or across different sociocultural contexts. Instead, we need to investigate patterns of meaning and network structures in conjunction. For example, we can build on correspondence analysis (or other geometric methods like multidimensional scaling) and on Galois Lattices to reconstruct the cultural landscapes underlying particular social constellations. We also have to deploy more qualitative-interpretive tools to investigate the micro-negotiation of the meaning of identities, categories, and ties in the process of communication.
Daniel Alexandrov and Aleksei Gorgadze, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Ethnic Groups, Symbolic Resources and Networks on VK Social Network Site
Our paper deals with the network analysis of virtual groups from the Caucasus on SNS VKontakte (VK). Certain open features of VK profiles allow for the analysis of geographic position of users, membership of the groups, the content of groups’ pages, and 'friendship' ties between groups. The data amounts to 887 groups for network analysis (more than 1 mln members), and 287 groups for LDA topic modelling (500 posts for each group). The research design allow us to study the interaction between discourses (as revealed by LAD topic modeling), social (virtual) groups and national identities. Besides the multitude of groups narrowly defined in terms of ethnicity or locality there are many groups aspiring to offer regional panethnic identities. The content of the group pages provides data on symbolic resources used to build these identities. The betweenness centrality measure shows which groups and which symbolic resources provide the foundation for the multi-ethnic and panethnic bridging ties. Religion is not the most salient issue and not the major factor in the formation of inter-group ties. Instead the discourse on traditional values and gender stereotypes is the most salient topic allowing for the mediation between national groups.
Reyes Herrero, Complutense University of Madrid
Power and the Network Analysis of Duality
The concept of duality as developed by Breiger (1974, 2000) makes operational George Simmel’s ideas about individualization as a process in which individual’s identity emerges from the position defined by the intersection of the social circles to which the individual belongs. The analysis of networks in terms of this duality allows the consideration of objective, rather than intersubjective relations among individual actors, and thus understand relational structures in terms of objective rather than intersubjective patterns. The claim of this work is that duality, and the network analysis of duality could be used as a tool for reconsideration and redefinition of the concept of power. We illustrate this attempt with the analysis of the funding relation between different groups firms and political candidates. The case that we analyse is that of Brazil. The results drive to a definition of power as a particular type of structure rather that as particular type of relation.
Marina Zavertiaeva, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Félix J. López Iturriaga, University of Valladolid
Networks of members of Boards of directors in Russian companies
Corporate governance in large Russian companies is usually described by low transparency, political connections, importance of relationships. However, low attention was paid to the study of directors networks. The aim of our work is to make a descriptive analysis of Russian boards of directors (BoD) networks. We use the sample of directors of 112 large Russian companies from 2009 to 2014 (6736 observations). We analyze some usual characteristics like age, education, experience together with the networks metrics (degree, betweenness, closeness, eigenvector). We find that directors within the same board are rather dispersed by their networks. Interestingly, boards of financial institutions are less connected in terms of networks metrics but are characterized by significantly higher share of directors with governmental and industry experience. Firms with more isolated boards are characterized by lower size, higher market valuation, higher financial leverage and less political connections. The values of degree, betweenness and their diversity within a board are becoming lower from 2009 to 2014. Closeness and its diversity become higher. The results allow to assume some relationships and give prospects for the future research.
David Hachen, Omar Lizardo, Carlene Gundy, and Cheng Wang, University of Notre Dame
The Dynamic Coupling of Two-Mode Social Foci Networks and One-Mode Social Networks
Sharing “social foci” is a central mechanism in relationship formation. “One mode” person to person (PP) networks are structured by “two-mode” (affiliation) person to foci (PF) relationships. Yet, previous work has generally ignored two issues. First, both (PP) and (PF) relationships are dynamic. Ties and affiliations come and go. Second, the dependence between PP and PF is not uni-directional. PF membership can give rise to PP connections, but PP connections can also alter PF affiliations as persons select groups based on their associates’ memberships. We investigate this dynamic and two-way coupling using temporally fine-grained data derived from the NetSense study that involved remote monitoring of telecommunications between members of a college student cohort over two-years, coupled with periodic surveys collecting information on their co-memberships (organizational foci) and leisure pursuits (activity foci). Using a stochastic actor based model framework, we find that sharing foci generates and maintains PP connections, although organizational foci tend to have a stronger effect than activity ones. We also find that the PF network is affected by PP connections. We discuss the implications for understanding network dynamics across coupled one and two mode networks.
Social Media Networks. Part 2
3 July, 10:00, Room 143
Ana Bleahu, University College London
Romanian Gypsies - The Rise of a Connected Transnational Network
My research is about social change within a community of Gypsies, mainly Pentecostals, from Romania, and about the rise of their transnational network, due to migration and the impact of the Internet. The study is about how this Gypsy community, shaped by mobility, separation and reunion, makes use of the Internet, especially of YouTube, at home and in diaspora. The structural social isolation of the Gypsies, both at home and in diaspora, increases their dependency on the kinship network and “brotherhood”. Their cultural production/reproduction is shaped nowadays by transnational circuits of people, songs, objects, both in physical space, across national borders, and in virtual space.
Victor Karepin, Aina Nurmagombetova, Ilya Musabirov, and Daniel Alexandrov, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Kazakh online groups in Russia on SNS Vkontakte
In this paper we study network and topic structure of online groups formed by Kazakhstan migrants in largest Russian cities. Using data from the most popular online network on the territory of former Soviet Union – Vkontakte (VK), we found groups in 48 out of 160 cities with the population more than 100,000 people. We show that number of members in these groups is negatively linked to log(distance) from the host city to Kazakhstan border (r = -0.46, p < .001), suggesting existence of Kazakhstan's cultural influence zone. Building a two-mode member-group network and aggregating its projection on “city-city” level with Jaccard coefficient as edge weights, we found that the logarithm of geodesic distance between groups' host cities and the share of joint members are negatively connected (r = -0.3, p < .001), showing a spatial dimension of group formation. Using text analysis, we show main themes of these groups and discuss their role in community life. E.g., a lot of information shared in groups is dedicated to traditional Kazakh culture. We also show that announcements of “off-line” events and after-reports, including photos and videos, play important role in these groups, suggesting their role in coordination of offline community building.
Svetlana Bodrunova, Ivan Blekanov, and Alexey Maximov, St. Petersburg State University; Anna Litvinenko, St. Petersburg State University, Free University of Berlin
Tweeting on Migrants in Germany, France, and Russia: Echo Chambers or Opinion Crossroads?
Despite globalization of inter-ethnic conflicts, the national dimension of communication on them remains highly relevant. Answering how and why Twitter discussions mirror societal cleavages and representation of conflict sides may provide understanding on access of social groups to the platform and on their role in active formation of the conflictual discourse in comparative perspective.
The study analyses three conflicts salient in media agendas of Germany (PEGIDA), the USA (Ferguson riots) and Russia (Biryulyovo bashings), as well as three ‘calm’ periods. These conflicts are united by their inter-ethnic / inter-racial nature, violent character, street protest, and polarization of national public spheres towards the ‘minorities’. To map the cleavages in the discussion, we use vocabulary-based automated web crawling, coding of tweet samples, statistical analysis, and interpretative reading of tweet threads. The overall collection of tweets includes over 60,000 units; the overall coded sample is over 2,000 tweets (at least 400 tweets per each of the six periods studied).
Preliminary results suggest that national Twitter segments show varying potential for ‘crossroads’ formation. The biggest ‘crossroads’ potential is seen in US Twitter, while German segments show ‘echo chambers’ and Russian Twitter is a united ‘filter bubble’ that ‘filters out’ the migrant community.
Anatoly Boyashov, St. Petersburg State University; Daria Radkina, Vitebsk State Medical University
Social Networks in Emerging Global Social Movements: Case of the Red Cross Youth Movement in Instagram in 2015
The paper presents the main findings of the research concentrated on the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in social networks in 2015. The research question is the following: how contemporary youth adopts the mission, values, and principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies? The authors combine the sociological hyper-empirical methodology of G. Gurvich [G. Gurvitch, 1953] and Cohen and Kennedy approach to global civil society [Cohen R. Kennedy P., 2013]. Consequently, the authors come to a conclusion that contemporary international and global bodies contribute to the development of global civil society through the dissemination of their values and principles on a global scale. That scale represents the organizations ‘campaigns on the Internet where the final aim is to support global social movements. Moreover, one of the target audiences of those campaigns is youth, i. e. the UN Youth Movement, the Red Cross Youth Movement, which claims for the examination of youth activities in social networks. Through the analysis of “Instagram” network in 2015 the authors reveal the characteristics of the Red Cross Youth Movement in 2015.
Network Analysis of Cultural and Social Duality. Part 2
3 July, 12:30, Room 138
Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University; Aleksandra Nenko, ITMO University
The Interplay of Imposed and Emergent Meaning Structures: A Socio-Semantic Network Analysis of Artistic Collectives
This paper explores meaning structures expressed in human interaction. While certain meanings are imposed by fields, actual joint practice of agents often follows the necessities of the ‘matters at hand’ rather than corresponding to prescriptions of fields. This may result in emergent meaning structures that are difficult to capture and often disregarded by institutional and field studies. Yet, such structures are able to transform or mediate fields. The latter is particularly to be expected in creative settings, where individuals frequently use gaps and overlaps in logics of fields to generate multiple interpretations. We investigate the duality of imposed and emergent meaning structures, applying a socio-semantic approach to artistic collectives - groups of artists involved in intense interaction with each other in joint creative work and exhibitions. Such collectives, though tending to reproduce field-specific meaning structures, are able to elaborate their own meaning structures. Our analysis of two art groups residing in St. Petersburg exemplifies the interplay between, on the one hand, distinctive meaning structures imposed by fields and, on the other hand, shared meaning structures emerging as blends of meanings corresponding to different fields and field positions occupied by members of the collective.
Julia Brennecke, Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne; Nikita Basov, St. Petersburg State University
Meaning sharing and interpersonal ties in creative organizations: A multiplex network analysis of cultural and social duality
This paper draws upon the idea of duality of social and cultural structures investigating the relations between meaning sharing and interpersonal ties in organizations. We test hypotheses on micro-principles according to which socio-cultural structures emerge based on specifications of such cornerstone mechanisms revealed by social network analysis as homophily and structural balance. We use data on creative organizations, where individual choices of ties establishment are quite voluntary in terms of both expressive and instrumental relationships. Rich multi-source datasets were collected via in-depth ethnographic studies of six self-run creative organizations located in St. Petersburg, Hamburg, Madrid, London, and Barcelona. Networks of meaning similarities in each creative organization were combined with networks of interpersonal ties, distinguishing between expressive and instrumental relationships. We applied exponential random graph models (ERGMs) for multiplex networks. Basic models, surplus to structuring processes within meaning sharing networks and networks of interpersonal ties themselves, tested for direct correspondence between the meaning sharing and the two types of interpersonal ties across the organizations. These models revealed that surplus to well-known structuring mechanisms operative within each of the two networks (such as triadic closure), there is also a direct overlap between the networks, both when expressive ties and instrumental interpersonal ties were considered. These results are aligned with the previous studies proving positive relations between interpersonal ties and meaning sharing. Elaborate models accounted also for more complex micro-principles of co-orientation between the networks producing the observed overall socio-cultural structures, such as multiplex triadic clustering. These models have shown that the linkage between meaning sharing and interpersonal ties is less straightforward, that it works differently for expressive and instrumental relations, and that the social and the cultural structures are mutually constitutive.
Glaucia Peres da Silva, University Duisburg-Essen
The Duality of Culture and Social Structure in the Music Market
Sociological analyses have long considered economy as isolated from culture, mainly because of the unquestioned acceptance of the neoclassical microeconomic theory as a model to explain economic behavior, which had the effect of reducing culture to variations of preference. With the emergence of the new economic sociology, network analyses became a central approach to the study of economic behavior understood as embedded in networks of social relations. From this perspective, economic formations in the form of markets are understood as social formations. If we link this premise to the assumption of the duality of culture and social structure, we can analyse both culture and economy. A qualitative network analysis based mainly on White’s (2008) approach offers an adequate method to grasp the interdependency of culture, economics and social life. Its application in the case of World Music demonstrates that the meanings given to this category emerged from interactions between label owners surrounding a marketing campaign in London, which resulted in the co-constitution of a music genre and a global market. This analysis focuses on relational events at the micro level of social interactions, at the meso level of institution building and at the macro level of market reproduction.
Alexandra Barmina and Maria Safonova, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Nadezhda Sokolova, European University at St.Petersburg
Art Institutions of St.Petersburg: Structural Positions and Organizational Classifications
Cultural organizations, such as museums, theaters, galleries, let social agents with resources state the status boundaries and support them. With the shift of groups, supporting these art institutions, the institutional designs are changed as well and the new systems of classifications emerge. These classifications concern both works of art and art institutions. Since the beginning of the XXI century a lot of new cultural organizations have appeared in St.Petersburg. They integrated in an established organizational network and a system of classifications. First, the dominant system of classifications will be presented. Then the way the classifications influence the networks of art institutions will be given. Finally, the organizational network and the structural positions of the new agents, the groups in the network and the resources that circulate in the network will be observed.
Margarita Kuleva and Daria Maglevanaya, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Rebels or Followers: Fashion Bloggers as Cultural Producers
Fashion industry is known as a hierarchized one, both on levels of production (Kawamura 2004, Enwistle 2006) and consumption (Bourdieu 1984). This perspective follows classical theories of fashion, i.e. trickle-down theory (Simmel 1904). However, scholars also describe democratization of fashion system: trickle-up consumption (Crane2002), street-fashion (Kawamura 2006) and subcultural styles (Steele 1997). Fashion system now includes intermediate zones for producers, consumers and prosumers - agents, aggregating features of both (Toffler 1980, Ritzer 2015). The presentation focuses on fashion bloggers as fashion prosumers. Our sample consists of 15 blogs, which were nominated on two major awards for fashion bloggers Bloglovin.com and Stylight.com in 2015. We analyzed 1223 looks they produced for 1 year (brand choices for every look). We created two-mode network (“blogger” - “brand”) and converted it to one-mode network (“brand-brand”). The main research question is whether fashion bloggers as cultural intermediates tend to follow professional community and replicate its hierarchies or rebel against it by creating their owns. We look at three dimensions of brand combination a) mass-market and haute-couture brands b) brands oriented to male or female audiences c) global and local brands.
Networked City: The Multiplicity of Urban Links and Nodes. Part 2
3 July, 12:30, Room 141
Na’amah Hagiladi and Pnina Plaut, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Feld’s Foci theory and the Relations Between Meeting Locations and Travel Behaviour
PhD research relates to a growing multidisciplinary field at which travel is analysed via aspects of communication, travel behaviour and social networks. All studies conducted thus far are based upon Wellman’s “Network Individualism”. Building upon Feld’s foci theory, as well as on recent development within Time-Geography framework, it is the purpose of this study to understand the way meetings between groups - friends, colleagues, or family members, are taking place in the city and their travel behaviour patterns. The study has traced the travel behaviour patterns of groups in Tel Aviv, using both web based questionnaires, as well as GIS analysis of the city’s structure. The questionnaires combined questions taken from travel behaviour diaries as well as social networks name generators. The results shows a strong linkage between the nature of groups and their meeting locations, thus demonstrating the applicability of Feld’s theory and possible research paths.
Vadim Voskresenskiy, Irina Krylova, Anastasia Kuznetsova, Ilya Musabirov, and Daniel Alexandrov, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Social Network Analysis of St. Petersburg Online Urban Communities
In this paper, we study network structure of online groups formed by urban residents on social networking site “VKontakte”. We collected posts and IDs of participants from groups, related to apartment buildings and districts of St. Petersburg, and groups representing city-wide urban initiatives. We created a two-mode network based on the share of overlapping participants between territorial and city-wide groups. After that, we applied community detection algorithm to projections of territorial groups to study the structure of groups on different territorial levels. To reveal patterns of neighbours communication, topic modelling algorithm LDA was applied to groups’ posts. Networked structure of two major city-wide initiatives (“Beautiful St. Petersburg” and “Separate Collection [of garbage]”) was revealed, as VK groups on the level of the city administrative districts formed two distinct communities. The first focused on sustaining and improving urban environment, and the second one organized separate collections of trash in each district of the city. In the network, formed by groups related to apartment buildings, we observed a functional differentiation between community of groups directed to fight with external threats (e.g. fill-in construction), and community of groups which are more interested in solving internal problems of houses (e.g. unsatisfactory work of HOA).
Güneş Ertan, Koch University Istanbul
Structure and Formation of Urban Mobilization Networks
This paper analyses the structure of the network of local social movement organizations in Ankara, Turkey between 2006 and 2011. The data set is based on police records and considers mobilizations for only Ankara related policy issues, excluding national mobilizations. First section of the paper concentrates on network parameters and empirically identifies Ankara SMO network as a hierarchical network. After examining centrality measures of SMOs to classify structurally significant actors, final section of the paper utilizes ERGMs to decipher network formation mechanisms.
Michelle Birkett, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips II, and Brian Mustanski, Northwestern University
Racial Disparities in HIV: The Influence of Race, Poverty, and Geography on Sexual Network Structure
Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by the HIV epidemic, with an annual incidence estimated as high as 6.4%, higher than any other age, race, or risk group. However, mechanisms which produce these racial disparities in HIV are poorly understood, and many in the field are calling for a broader systems-level perspective that examines the epidemic from a multilevel social-contextual framework. In order to understand the role of these important social contextual attributes in the formation of sexual relationships, this analysis will focus on examining bipartite sexual connections between the 77 Chicago community areas. Specifically, the social contextual factors leading to increased sexual tie formation between community areas will be examined. Data come from a network of 3,140 individuals captured through 175 network interviews with Chicago YMSM. Results indicate sexual ties are significantly influenced by racial preferences, geographic distance, and a preference for ties to neighborhoods with similar income. These results suggest several mechanisms for how social contextual factors may impact the sexual network structure of individuals and their communities, and therefore affect the flow of disease through a population.
Network Analysis of Political and Policy-Making Domains
3 July, 12:30, Room 136
Attila Kovács, Corvinus University of Budapest; Johannes Wachs, Central European University
Familiar Faces: Collaboration in the European Parliament
In social networks links between similar individuals are usually more frequent than links between different individuals. This phenomenon is called homophily. We use a novel dataset on amendment cosponsorship in the European Parliament to measure homophily according to many different attributes, including age, gender, nationality, party affiliation, tenure and language. From over 8,000 amendments tabled to four Common Agricultural Policy legislative proposals, we extract the embedded collaborative network of MEPs and rank the strength of different homophilies. Early results indicate that shared party affiliation and language are especially common in legislative collaborations. We predict that though political variables will have the strongest influence, personal attributes will also be significant. The key hypothesis of the research is that homophilies face dimishing returns; once two MEPs share a few common attributes, more similarities do not greatly increase the chance or volume of collaboration. We examine which combinations of shared attributes lead to more productive groupings. We also contrast the homophily profiles of successful amendments and failed amendments, hypothesizing that the most successful teams of MEPs are those with the right mix of similarity and diversity.
Anatoly Boyashov, St. Petersburg State University
Networks in International Courts: Case of the European Court of Human Rights
Each judgment of an international court has references to the court’s practice. The network analysis is to reveal “the most influential” judgments in terms of its influence on the future development of the court's case-law. If international courts are bodies established by states, then the research question is the following: are the contributions of all states-parties equal in this terms? In this paper the author applies the network analysis method to trace the links among the judgments of the European Court of Human rights on the protection of human dignity (1199 judgments). Each judgment is delivered against a relevant state. The author reveals the characteristics of the “state judgment clusters” and so-called “global clusters”: the judgments that are the most influential not only on the practice of the Court against a relevant state, but also on the other states-parties. What state forms the “global clusters” or are they still nationally oriented?
Tatiana Romashko, Herzen University
Russian Cultural Policy: From Nascent Network Society to the Return of State Centrism
Since 2012 Russian state cultural policy has shifted dramatically from a nascent policy governance framework to a command culture regime. Braking cultural connections and social networks between Russia and EU countries, on the one hand, and fixing Russian sociocultural institutions under state control, on the other, may be seen as a result of a state policy to reassert Russian cultural values against the West. Using methods associated with discourse analysis (Laclau and Mouffe 2001) this paper explores the features of cultural policy networks in order to find out how these discursive practices and relations are conditioned by contemporary political forces. My analysis demonstrates that network structures, controlled by the state, are directed to confirm, legitimate and reproduce the nation-state paradigm. That process stigmatizes alternative ideas and networks as extremist in society. The paper addresses the main features of the Russian state discourse such as asymmetrical communications, rigid structure of the discussion and monologue dominance which limits any attempts to develop independent network forms of horizontal organization in cultural policy making and implementation.
Ivan Aymaliev, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Business Policemen behind the Blue Veil of Silence: Determinants of Centrality, Sentencing, Murder and Whistleblowing in Corrupt Elite Networks
For elite corruption networks to prosper despite institutional change, they must possess remarkable leaders, and efficient and resilient social organization. Exploring the socioeconomic characteristics of high-achieving corruption entrepreneurs and the webs of their secret interactions may enable us to design better anti-corruption policies. Therefore, we seek to understand - ‘Why are certain corrupt actors more central than others?’ and ‘How does personal centrality in a corrupt network affect the probability of law enforcement outcomes, whistleblowing, and assassination?’ To address these questions, we draw upon organizational, organized crime and covert networks theories and use documentary and archival data to reconstruct the actual cooperation networks involved in high-profile police corruption in Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We model personal centrality as a function of actor work occupation, rank, criminal reputation, ability to maintain the secret code, membership in secret organizations, and gender. We further predict allegation, arrest, verdict, murder, sentence, and whistleblowing as functions of personal centrality, management level, work occupation, marriages, gender, and democratic and economic transition.
Adil Rodionov, Eurasian National University; Darkhan Medeuov, Leipzig University
Global Connectedness of Local LNGOs: A Remedy or Poison for the Young Civil Society?
Can local non-governmental organisations (LNGOs) be both locally rooted and globally connected? While some scholars argue that globally integrated organisations prefer to collaborate only with similar ones, others point out something diametrically opposed, and complexity resides in the different methodologies underlying these perspectives, which disallows straight comparison.
We attempted to address this problem within the framework of exponential random graph models (ERGM). We derived the collaboration network from the survey of 133 Kazakhstani NGOs augmented by information from official sites. Insights of advocates and critics of globally connected LNGOs had been reformulated into the ERGM hypotheses, and, then, examined under the various dependence assumptions.
We found that the partnership structure appears to arise from financial and regional homophily, popularity spread and transitive closure. We argue that aid of international donors seems to foster trust in localised homogeneous groups without significant effect on the other domains of civil society.
Social Media Networks. Part 3
3 July, 12:30, Room 143
Nikolay Butakov and Natalya Shindapyna, ITMO University
Ontology-based Domain Specific Language for Crawling Online Social Networks
Nowadays social network analysis often requires frequent crawling of online social networks (OSN) to update data and maintain their actuality. There are many solutions dedicated to that purpose, but these solutions are being created for particular tasks and a concrete research thus greatly reducing its reusability and narrowing possible set of situations when the solutions can be applied, for example, for another OSN. The situation gets worse when a new OSN or similar structure appearing. The new network may have the same structure but differences in the interface prevent to use for crawling by means of the already existed tool. Eventually, a user should find either another tool or modify existed one and reimplement or correct crawling scenarios what can take significant amount of time. To solve this problem, we propose an approach based on a specially developed domain specific language (DSL) and ontological model of crawling methods. The approach allows to form a scenario with the proposed DSL. This scenario consists of description of desired data and a sequence of abstract queries that determines how the final data should be crawled. Than it can be translated by means of replacing of abstract queries with the real ones assuming concrete API calls to a desirable OSN. This procedure requires proposed in the work the ontological model.
Emil Saucan, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology; Karthikeyan Mohanraj, Areejit Samal; Juergen Jost, Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences (Leipzig), Santa Fe Institute
Forman Сurvature for Сomplex Directed Networks
Directed networks are basic models for a variety of phenomena, in such diverse fields as Social Sciences, Communication, Biology, Electronics, and many others. However, while for undirected networks a plethora of geometric approaches have been devised and applied, practically very few, if any at all, such tools exist for their directed counterparts. We propose to remedy this situation by introducing a novel notion of discrete Ricci curvature for directed networks, both unweighted and weighted, by adapting to this context an abstract definition due to R. Forman. Furthermore, we prove the capabilities of the proposed method in analyzing and classifying various types of networks, by applying it on a variety of model, as well as real-life networks, and comparing its performance with that of a number of more standard network measures. A number of other possible applications are also suggested.
Yuri Rykov, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Network and Participation Inequalities Within Online Communities: The Comparison of Social Movement, Professional and Fan Groups on VK.com SNS
This project investigates the network structure and user behavior of SNS-based online communities from the perspective of the '90-9-1 rule' for participation inequality in social media. According to this theory community members are significantly differentiated by their posting behavior, and that may lead to extremely unequal distribution of valuable resources as attention and social capital. We suppose online communities form different spheres of social life probably differ from each other by inequality rates (Gini, graph centralization). RQ: How do network and participation inequalities change across different types of online communities? The study compares fan, professional and social movement communities in Russian SNS VK.com. The sample includes 55 groups (vary in size from 5,000 to 34,000 users). The data was collected automatically through API-software. SNA and statistics were used to analyze the data. The results showed social movement networks are the most centralized and the most unequal in degree centrality distribution among members that indicates the inequality for an individual-level social capital accumulation. Professional communities have the lowest Gini indexes for posted messages and received 'likes' distributions that indicates more egalitarian structure.
Yadviga Sinyavskaya, Vladimir Pyrlik, Olessia Koltsova, Irina Nikiforova, and Sergei Koltsov, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Online Social Networks and the Success of Startupers
Social networks have been traditionally regarded an important resource for the success of startupers, however, the impact of online social networking sites on startup performance has received very little attention of scholars. We investigate properties of startupers’ accounts in the leading Russian SNS Vkontakte and relate them to the scores obtained by their projects at the startupers’ website Startuprating.ru. Additional data have been retrieved from Startuppoint.ru website. Startupers are defined as those registered on startupers’ websites, and their VK accounts have been matched manually, with about a half of accounts being found. We use linear and ordered logistic regression as well as decision trees and descriptive statistical analysis. We find that startupers are statistically different from ordinary VK users by demographic, network and activity features. Degree centrality in the network of friends among other strartupers (but not among all VK friends) is positively related to the overall score of their projects, while higher incoming centrality in the network of followers leads to lower overall grade. Membership in some VK groups for startupers is related to scores in specific fields, and the number of likes increases the project’s score in the field of public relations.
3 July, 15:30, Conference hall
Peter Bearman, Columbia University
Continuity and change in large-scale semantic and interaction networks
This talk focuses on how we can identify both continuity and change in large-scale networks of different kinds. The cases considered arise from interaction networks, where the interaction of interest is killing in the thirty year conflict in Northern Ireland and semantic networks drawn from over 200 years of state of the union addresses of US Presidents whose addresses index the prevailing understandings of governance. What continuity and change means in interaction networks and what continuity and change means in semantic networks differ. We need to use completely different kinds of methodological strategies for each. Paradoxically, I will try to show that more conventional network strategies work for semantic networks and fail for interaction networks. The comparison of the two contrasting cases is designed to show why this may be the case.